Sunday, March 13, 2011

Museo Soumaya, Riddled with non-disclosed Forgeries

UPDATED: May 15, 2011

NOTE:
Footnotes are enclosed as [FN ]



















T
he Museo Soumaya is riddled with non-disclosed Bourdelle, Daumier, Degas, Michelangelo, Renoir and Rodin forgeries.

J. Paul Getty Museum, under their Getty Research, defines -counterfeit- as: "forgeries (derivative objects)" with a note stating: "Reproductions of whole objects when the intention is to deceive; includes sculptures cast without the artist's permission."[FN 1]

Emile-Antoine Bourdelle (d 1929) was dead when Valsuani, Susse and Godard foundries posthumously cast his work in bronze, Honore Daumier & Edgar Degas never cast in bronze (much less brass), Michelangelo was 368 years dead in 1932 when his work was reproduced in plaster and subsequently cast in bronze, Renoir was a paralytic who did not sculpt after 1910, and the Georges Rudier, listed as the foundry for many of the Soumaya Museum's so-called Rodin[s] went into business in 1952 some 35 years after Rodin's death in 1917.

The dead don't sculpt.

At best, Carlos Slim was misled into purchasing these non-disclosed forgeries.

This monograph will document these devastating facts versus the Museo Soumaya's collection of non-disclosed forgeries.


MICHELANGELO?
The above photograph of "Pieta," in bronze and attributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti in the Museo Soumaya, was published in the Noticias Merida's March 2, 2011 "Presidente Calderon y Carlos Slim inauguran el Museo Soumaya"[FN 2] article. In part, as translated by Free Translation from Spanish to English, the article states: "The night on Tuesday March 1, 2011, the President Felipe Cauldron Hinojosa headed the ceremony of inauguration of the Museum Soumaya, located in the Plaza Carso of Mexico City, in a modern building that will receive the collection of most important private art of the country and of Latin America, as reports the press room of the Presidency of the Republic."[FN 3]

Michelangelo Buonarroti carved his original sculpture, titled "Pieta," in marble in 1498-99, not cast in bronze.

Yet, in a El Pais Semanal's published July 15, 2007 "Carlos Slim, The Second Richest Man in the World" article and interview with Carlos Slim by Francese Relea, the reporter wrote: "In this marble stairs and walls building is a replica of "La Pieta" of Michael Angelo that has the blessing from the Vatican and the Certification of the Buonarroti House."[FN 4]

On page 350 of the 1991 HarperCollins Dictionary of Art Terms & Techniques by Ralph Mayer, -replica- is defined as: "an exact copy or duplicate of a work, done in the same size and in the same medium, and done by the artist who created the original (or, sometimes done under the artist's direct supervision)."[FN 5]

On The Michelangelo Experience website, it states: "Provenance of The Pieta (Michelangelo Buonarroti),"[FN 6] in their collection, is listed as follows:
  • "Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarotti Simoni, (Florence 1475 – 1564 Rome), Pietà, Bronze, brown patina, Height x width: 65 x 76.75 inches, Signed in the cast: MICHAEL.ÅGELVS. BONAROTVS.FLORENT.FACIEBA[T]., Edition: No. 4 of an edition of 12 bronzes cast in 1982. The original plaster prototype is a precise cast of Michelangelo’s original marble statue in St. Peter’s, Rome. The prototype was made in 1932 by the Fonderia Marinelli with the authorization of the Vatican."
In 1932, much less in 1982, Michelangelo Buonarroit (1475-1564) was over 368 years dead.

The dead don't replica.

On page 1386 of the Seventh Edition of Black's Law Dictionary, -sign- is defined as: "To identify (a record) by means of a signature."[FN 7]

On page 1387 of the Seventh Edition of Black's Law Dictionary, -signature- is defined as: "A person's name or mark written by that person or at the person's direction."[FN 8]

In 1982, Michelangelo Buonarroit (1475-1564) was over 368 years dead.

The dead don't sign.

On page 350 of the 1991 HarperCollins Dictionary of Art Terms & Techniques by Ralph Mayer, -reproduction- is defined as: "a general term for any copy - of an original work of art -, done in the same medium as the original or in another, and done by someone other than the creator of the original."[FN 9]

Therefore, the Fonderia Marinelli workers' 1932 reproduction, with their fingerprints in their plaster reproduction of Michelangelo Buonarroti's marble Pieta, would by definition be a reproduction. The subsequent bronze casts, from the Fonderia Marinelli workers' posthumous (1932) plaster reproduction, with the posthumously inscribed counterfeit Michelangelo signature, would be forgeries.

On page 661 of the Seventh Edition of Black's Law Dictionary, -forgery- is defined as: "The act of fraudulently making a false document or altering a real one to be used as if genuine."[FN 10]

Rhetorically, would inscribing Michelangelo Buonarroti's name (albeit in Italian) to a 2nd-generation-removed bronze forgery be the "act of fraudulently making a false document or altering a real one to used as if genuine?"

Remember, the bronzes are not, by definition, reproduction of anything Michelangelo Buonarroit created, but 2nd-generation-removed forgeries from a posthumous (1932) plaster reproduction by the Fonderia Marinelli workers.

As noted earlier, J. Paul Getty Museum, under their Getty Research, defines -counterfeit- as: "forgeries (derivative objects)" with a note stating: "Reproductions of whole objects when the intention is to deceive; includes sculptures cast without the artist's permission."[FN 11]

Once again, in 1932, much less in 1982, Michelangelo Buonarroit (1475-1564) was over 368 years dead.

The dead don't give permission.

BOURDELLE?
On page 124 of Pierre Kjellberg’s 1994 Bronzes OF THE 19TH CENTURY, Dictionary of Sculptors, the author wrote after the death of Emile-Antoine Bourdelle ”his studio and the works it contained were futilely offered to the State by his widow for about twenty years. The donation was finally accepted by the city of Paris, which opened the museum in 1949. A contract was then signed with Mme Bourdelle and her daughter, Mme Dufet-Bourdelle (today curator of the museum), stipulating that each of the sculptures could be cast in ten bronze copies, by two artists who would be selected through a competition. Works which had already been made, as could be determined by a general inventory, were exempt from this contract. Produced by different founders - Susse, Godard, Valsuani, Hohwiller, the Coubertin Foundation, Clementi, etc., the proofs thus obtained were numbered and carry the note 'Copyright by Bourdelle.' A number of them also carry a stylized star, the artist's monogram made of an A and a B reversed."[FN 12]

BOURDELLE FORGERIES @ MUSEO SOUMAYA:
  • 1. Emile-Antoine Bourdelle, (Montauban, Francia, 1861 - Vesinet, Francia, 1929), Heracles el arquero, Heracles archer, 1909, Bronce con patina verde y cafe, 53. 6 x 56 x 33.5 cm, Fundidor: Susse, Num: de serie: 4, Firma: monograma en la parte posterior de la base, a la izquierda http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 2. Emile-Antoine Bourdelle, (Montauban, Francia, 1861 - Vesinet, Francia, 1929), rodin inclinado hacia atras, Rodin penche en arriere, 1909, Bronce con patina cafe y verde, 63.9 x 51.1 x 46.9 cm, Fundidor: E. Godard, Paris, Firma: EMILE-ANTOINE/BOURDELLE, en la base a la izquierda, monograma a la derecha http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 3. Emile-Antoine Bourdelle, (Montauban, Francia, 1861 - Vesinet, Francia, 1929), La siesta, La sieste, 1894, Bronce con patina negra y verde, 21.6 x 41.4 x 23.9 cem, Fundidor: Valsuani, 1967, Num. de serie: VI/10, Firma: Emile Bourdelle, en la base a la izquieerda http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto

DAUMIER?
Honore-Victorin Daumier -never- worked in bronze.

This factual perspective is confirmed on page 253 of Pierre Kjellberg’s 1994 Bronzes OF THE 19TH CENTURY, Dictionary of Sculptors, where the author wrote Honore Daumier's "sculpted work is better known thanks to the bronzes" but “he never saw them, and no doubt never anticipated them.”[FN 13]

All so-called bronzes attributed to Honore Daumier (d 1879) were posthumously cast between 1891 and the 1960's.

This is additionally confirmed in a National Gallery of Art's "2000 biographie of Honoré Daumier" by Suzanne Glover Lindsay, where the author wrote: "The many posthumous campaigns to serialize Daumier's sculpture, which lasted well into the 1960s, have provided a subtly altered view of that aspect of his work."[FN 14]

DAUMIER FORGERIES @ MUSEO SOUMAYA:
  • 1. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsell, Francia, 1808 - Valmondoies, Francis, 1879) Luis XIV http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 2. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El espiritual y ladino, Conde Antoine-Maurice-Apollinaire, baron d’argout [1782-1858], Ministro y par de Francia, Le Spirituel et malin, 1832, Bronce con patina cafe, 13 x 16 x 10.3 cm, Fundidor: Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec0 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 3. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El bobo, Posible caricatura de Pierre-Louis, conde Roederer [1754-1835], [Identificado con anterioridad con Louis-Gaspard-Amedee Girod de L’Ain], Le Nais http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 4. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El arisco, Posible caricatura de Charles-Lous Huguet, marques de Semonville [1759-1839], Diplomatico y magistrado, L’Hargneux, c. 1834-1835 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 5. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El viejo taimado, Pierre-Paul Royer-Collard [1763-1845], Diputado Le Vieux finaud, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 13 x 11.6 x 8.9 cem; base 2.3 x 11.2 x 9.5 cm, Fundidor: Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de. serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 6. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El malo, Lauren Cunin llamado Cunin-Gridaine [1778-1859] diputado y par de Francia Le Mauvais, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 17 x 13.5 x 9 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne -M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 7. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El terco, Jean Vatout [1791-1848] Diputado L’Entete, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 19.3 x 16 x 10.7 cm, Fundidor: Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 8. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El astuto, JeanPonce-Guillaume Viennet [1777-1868] Diputado de 1820 a 1837, par de Francia y academico Le Ruse, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 19.4 x 16.5 x 12. 8 cm, Fundidor: Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 9. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El chocho, Jean-Marie Harle, llamado harle padre [1765-1838] Diputado Le Gateux, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 19.4 x 16.5 x 12.8 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 10. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El asco personificado, Jean-Marie Fruchard [1788-1872] Diputado Le Degout personnifie, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 12.6 x 14.5 x 11.8 cm; base 2.3 x 14.4 x 11.1 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 11. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El tartulo, Jean-Claude Fulchiron [774-1859] Diputado, par de Francia y poeta Le Tartufe, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 16.3 x 12.6 x 10.7 cm, base 2.2. x 13.5 x 10.9 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 12. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El escrupulose, Jean-Charles Persil [1785-1879] Magistrado, diputado y par de Francia Le Scrupuleux, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 19 x 16.9 x 9.1 cm, base 2.2. x 17. 10 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 13. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El espiritu fino y cortante, Jacques Lefebvre [1777-1856] Banquero y diputado L’Esprit fin et tanchant, 1832, Bronce con patina cafe, 19.5 x 11.7 x 14.2 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 14. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El tatuo, Conde Horace-Francois Sebastian delia Porta [1772-1851] Mariscal de Francia y politicao Le Fat, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 12.9 x 11.6 x 10 cm; base 2.2. x 11.6 x 9.9 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 15. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El hombre de la cabez plana, Hyppolite Lucien-Joseph Lucas [1807-1878] Periodista L’Homme a la tete plate, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 13.7 x 12.5 x 10.7 cm, base 2.2. x 13 x 9.5 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 16. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El aburrido, Francois-Pierre-Guillaume Guizot [1787-1874] diputado, ministro e historiador L’Ennuyeux, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 21.5 x 17 x 14.5 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 17. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El importante personaje, Felix Barthe [1796-1863] diputado y ministro de Justicia L’Important personnage, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 16.1 x 14.7 x 13.2 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 18. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El importante personaje, Felix Barthe [1796-1863] Diputado y ministro de Justicia L’Important personnage, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 16.1 x 14.7 x 13.2 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 19. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El espiritual y ladino, Conde Antoine-Maurice-Apollinaire, baron d’Argout [1782-1858] Ministro y par de Francia Le Spirituel et malin, 1832, Bronce con patina cafe, 13 x 16 x 13.2 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 20. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El indeciso, Conde Charles-Francois-Malo de Lameth [1752-1832] Diputado de 1829 a 1831 L’Indecis, 1832, Bronce con patina cafe, 14.9 x 14.5 x 8.7 cm, base 2.2 x 15.5 x 8.3 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 21. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El lambiscon, Conde Auguste-Hilarion de Keratry [1769-1859] Diputado y par de Francia L’Obsequieux, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 12.4 x 12.7 x 10.2 cm; base 2.2 x 13.5 x 10.4 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 22. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El espiritual ladine, Conde Antoine-Maurice-Apollinaire, baron d’Argout [1782-1858] Ministro y par de Francia Le Spirituel et malin, 1832, Bronce con patina cafe, 13 x 16 x 10.3 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 23. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El desdenose, Clement-Francois-Victor-Gabriel Prunelle [1774-1853] Medico alcaide de Lyon y diputado de 1830 a 1839 Le Dedaigneux, c. 1832, Bronce con patina cafe, 12.9 x 14.4 x 10.7 cm; base 2.3 x 15.3 x 11.3 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 24. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El infatuado de si mismo, Claude Baillot [1771-1836] Diputado y par de Francia, L’Infatue de soi, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 17.4 x 16 x 13.7 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 25. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El sonriente chimuelo, Charles Philipon [1800-1862], Periodista, director de La Caricature y de Charivari, le Rieur edente, 1832, Bronce con patina cafe, 15.7 x 12.5 x 10.4 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 26. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El ironista, Charles-Leonard Gallois [1789-1851] Publicista republicano e historiador, L’Ironiste, c. 1832, Bronce con patina cafe, 21.2 x 12.9 x11, base 2.2 x 13.3 x10.2 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 27. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El sutil, Alexandre Lecomte [c. 1778- ] Magistrado, Le Subtil, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 16.9 x 1.26 x 11.5 cm; base 2.2. x 12.6 x 12.2. cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 28. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El testarudo de pocos alcances, Benjamin Delesser [1773-1847] Industrial y diputado, Le Tetu borne, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 17.2 x 14.2 x 9.6 cm; base 2.2 x 13.5 x 9.3 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 29. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El importante malicioso, Baron Joseph de Podenas [1782-1851] Diputado, L’Important malicieux, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 20.5 x 19.4 x 12.3 cm; base 2.4 x 15 x 10.9 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 30. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El burlon, Jacques-Antoine-Adrien, baron Delot [1773-1846] General y diputado, Le Moqueur, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 22.7 x 14.2 x 10.3 cm; base 2.2 x 14.2 x 9.8 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 31. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El timido, Auguste-Hippolyte Ganneron [1792- 1847] Industrial y diputado de 1830 a 1847, Le Timide, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 17.8 x 13.1 x 10.5 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 32. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), Triste hasta la muerte, Auguste Gady [1774-1847] Magistrado, Triste jusqua la mort, 1832-1835, Bronce con patina cafe, 16.4 x 13 x 11.1 cm; base 2.2 x 13 x 11.2 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 33. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El despreciador, Antoine Odler [1766-1853] Baquero, diputado y par de Francia, Le Meprisant, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 14.5 x 11.5 x 10 cm; base 2.3 x 11.5 x 10.8 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 34. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El orado, Andre-Marie-Jean-Jacques Dupin, llamado Dupin el mayor [1783-1865], Diputado, abogado y academico, L’Orateur, 1832, cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 35. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El gastronomo, Alexandre-Simon Pataille [1784-1857] Magistrado y diputado, Le Gourmet, 1832, Bronce con patina cafe, 16.6 x 12. x 10.5 cm; base 2.2 x 13.2 x 10.6 cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 36. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), El vanidoso, Charles-Guillaume Etienne [1778-1845] Diputado, par de Francia, escritor y director de El constitucional, Le Vaniteux, 1833, Bronce con patina cafe, 16.1 x 15.2 x 13.6 cm; base 2.2 x 13.5 x cm, Fundidor Barbedienne - M.L.G. (Maurice Le Garrec), Num. de serie: 19/25 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 37. Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), Los emigrantes, Les emigrants, 1850, Bronce con patina gegra, 31 x 66.7 x 8 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Paris, Firma: h. Daumier, en la esquina inferior derecha, Inscription: Epreuve d’essai/Cire perdue, en el borde de la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 38 Honore Daumier, Honore-Victorin Daumier, (Marsella, Francia, 1808 - Valmondois, Francia, 1879), Los emigrantes, Les emigrants, 1850, Bronce con patina gegra, 31 x 66.7 x 8 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Paris, Firma: h. Daumier, en la esquina inferior derecha, Inscription: Epreuve d’essai/Cire perdue, en el borde de la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto

DEGAS?
It is amazing how many in the museum/academic world, much less the huge majority of the public does not have a clue that Edgar Degas never cast his sculptures in bronze (much less brass) and expressly did not want his sculptures cast into bronze.

This widespread misconception is addressed in a College Art Association’s published spring 1995 “art journal,” in a Degas Bronzes? article by Roger J. Crum. On page 95, the author wrote: “In Wilken’s essay we read that in 1921 Francois Thiebault-Sisson recalled that Degas had once said: I modeled animals and people in wax for my own satisfaction, not to take to rest from painting or drawing, but to give more expression, more spirit, and more life to my paintings and drawings. They are exercises to get me started. My sculptures will never give that impression of completion that is the ultimate goal of the statue-maker’s trade and since, after all, no one will ever see these efforts, no one should think of speaking about them, not even you. After my death all that will fall apart by itself, and that will be better for my reputation. (p. 23).”[FN 15]

This is further confirmed in the National Gallery of Art’s published 1998 Degas at the Races catalogue. On page 180 in Daphne S. Barbour’s and Shelly G. Strum’s “The Horse in Wax and Bronze” essay, these authors wrote: “Degas never cast his sculpture in bronze, claiming that it was a “tremendous responsibility to leave anything behind in bronze -- the medium is for eternity.”[FN 16]

All bronzes, falsely attributed to a dead Edgar Degas, may actually be made of brass according to the National Gallery of Art’s published 2010 Edgar Degas Sculpture catalogue.

“Brass is the term used for alloys of copper and zinc in a solid solution. Typically it is more than 50% copper and from 5 to 20% zinc, in comparison to bronze which is principally an alloy of copper and tin.”[FN 17]

This metallurgical discovery is confirmed on page 26 of the National Gallery of Art’s published 2010 Edgar Degas Sculptures catalogue, in the “Degas’ Bronzes Analyzed” essay by Shelly G. Sturman and Daphne S. Barbour. In part, the authors wrote: “Analysis of the elemental surface composition of the National Gallery sculptures was performed using X R F, a noninvasive technique. An alloy of copper and zinc with low to medium tin and traces of lead was used to cast all the sculptures. Results were also compared to X R F analysis undertaken at the Norton Simon Museum on the bronze modeles and at the Metropolitan Museum of Art on some of the serial A set as well. - Bronze is a misnomer for these sculptures, because they are all cast from brass (copper and zince with tin). But as they are universally referred to as “Degas bronzes,” we will continue to use that term in a nontechnical sense throughout this discussion.”[FN 18]

On page 1015 of the Seventh Edition of Black’s Law Dictionary, -misnomer- is defined as: “A mistake in naming a person, place of thing, esp. in a legal instrument.”[FN 19]

Unfortunately, the National Gallery of Art, Shelly G. Sturman and Daphne S. Barbour have a plethora of misnomers throughout their essay, not to mention the entire catalogue, one of which is the constant referral to posthumous bronzes, much less in brass attributed to Edgar Degas, as “sculpture.”

The dead don’t sculpt.

The National Gallery of Art, Shelly G. Sturman and Daphne S. Barbour would seem to believe and are acting on that belief the practice of perpetuating mistakes, with or without intent, is just a misnomer.

All brass but no Degas.

DEGAS FORGERIES @ MUSEO SOUMAYA:
  • 1. Edgar Degas, Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas, (Paris, Francia, 1834-1917), Mujer sentada en un sillon secondose la nuca, Femme assise dans un fauteuil, s’essuyant la nuque, 1896-1911, Bronce con patina cafe oscuro, 32 x 25.8 x 29.3 cm, Fundidor: A.A. Hebrard, Num. de serie: 44/F, Firma: Degas, en la parte inferior de sillon a la derecha http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 2. Edgar Degas, Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas, (Paris, Francia, 1834-1917), Bailarina avanzando con los brazos levantados, Danseuse’s avancant, les bras leves, c. 1885-1890, Bronce on patina negra y cafe, 35 x 15.1 x 17.7 cm; base 2 x 13 x 20 cm, Fundidor: A A Hebrard, Num. de serie: 19, Firma: Degas, en la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 3. Edgar Degas, Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas, (Paris, Francia, 1834-1917), Bailarina trotandose la rodilla (o Estudio para una bailarina en arlequin), Danseusse se frtottant le genou ou Etude pour une danseuse en arleguin, c. 1882-1885, Bronce con patina cafe rojizo, 31.5 x 24.1 x 14 cm; base 2.9 x 16.5 x 26.8 cm, Fundidor: A. A. Hebrard, Num. de serie: 39/B, Firma: Degas, en la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 4. Edgar Degas, Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas, (Paris, Francia, 1834-1917), Gran arabesco sobre pierna derecha, brazo izquierdo al frenie, Grande artabesque sur jambe droite, brase gauche devant, c. 1880-1882, Bronce con patina cafe oscuro y verde, 20. 3 x 25.5 x 10.5 cm, Fundidor: A. A. Hebrard, Num. de serie: 14, Firma: Degas, en la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 5. Edgar Degas, Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas, (Paris, Francia, 1834-1917), Preparacion para la danza, pie derecho adelante, Preparation a la danse, pied droit en avant, c. 1885-1890, Bronce con patina cafe rjizo, 56.5 x 32.4 x 22 cm, Fundidor: A. A. Hebrard, Num. de serie: 57/B, Firma: Degas, en la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 6. Edgar Degas, Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas, (Paris, Francia, 1834-1917), Caballo de tiro, Cheval de tire, c. 1865-1881, Bronce con patina cafe, 10.3 x 8.8 x 5.8 cm, Fundidor: A. A. Hebrard, Firma: Degas, en la base entre las patas del caballo http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 7. Edgar Degas, Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas, (Paris, Francia, 1834-1917), Caballo galopando sobre la pata derecha, Cheval au galp sur la patte droite, 1882-1895, Bronco con patina cafe, 19 x 33 x 18 cm, Fundidor: A. A. Hebrard, Num. de serie: 25, Firma: Degas, en la base al lado de la pata traser izquierda http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto

RENOIR?
On page 10 of the Paul Haesaerts’ 1947 Renoir Sculptor biography, the author wrote: “With the exception of a very few earlier attempts, Renoir devoted himself to sculpture on the eve and at the beginning of the war of 1914-1918, in other words between his seventy-third and seventy-fifth years. At the time he was not only an old man but a helpless paralytic. He was carried from his bed (where often enough he needed a cage to keep the bedclothes from touching his aching limbs) either in a sedan chair or in a wheelchair. His body was almost mummified. Not only was he deprived of the use of his legs, but his hands were stiffened and shrived. To allow him to paint, a brush was fixed between his rigidly curled fingers; thenceforth the work was done by arm movements, not by those of the hand and fingers.”[FN 20]

RENOIR FORGERIES @ MUSEO SOUMAYA:
  • 1. Pierre-Auguste Renoir, (Limoges, Francia, 1841 - Cagnes, Francia, 1919, Richard Guino, Buste de madame Renoir, 1916-1918, Bronce con patina cade, 58.6 x 51.2 x 35 cm, Fundidor Valsuan, 1950, Nume de serie: A (de la serie de la familia Renoir), Firma: Renoir, en la espalda bajo el hombro derecho http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 2. Pierre-Auguste Renoir, (Limoges, Francia, 1841 - Cagnes, Francia 1919), Pequena Venus de pie (o Venus triunfante), Petite Venus debout, 1913, Bronce con patina cafe, 60.5 x 30.4 x 21.6 cm, Fundidor: ilegible, Firma: Renoir, en la parte posterior de la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 3. Pierre-Auguste Renoir, (Limoges, Francia, 1841 - Cagnes, Francia 1919), Richard Guino, Maternite, 1916, Bronce con patina negra y cafe, 54 x 25 x 30,1 cme, Fundidor: Valsuani, Num: de serie: 6A/10 http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto


RODIN?
The dates given by the Museo Soumaya for many of their so-called Rodins predate the existence of the foundry that cast them.

The vast majority of Alexis Rudier casts are posthumous (see no. 3 for one obvious example). The Georges Rudier, Godard, Susse and Coubertin foundries all went into business 35 years or more after Auguste Rodin’s death in 1917.

FOUNDRIES
This information below was culled from pages 285-293 in the "Observations on Rodin and His Founders" monograph, by former Musee Rodin curator Monique Laurent, published in the National Gallery of Art's 1981 Rodin Rediscovered catalogue.[FN 21]

1880-1883 Gruet Jeune
1881-1904 F. Rudier
April 1882-Jan 1883 F. Laird
25 April 1882 Eugene Gonon
1884-1889 Pierre Bingen
1891-1895 Adolpe Gruet
1895 to mid-1898 J.B. Griffoul
1895-1898 Thiebaut Freres
1895 Societe Nationale des Bronzes, formerly J. Peterman
1896-1901 Leon Perzinka
1887-1894 Griffoul, associated with Lorge
4 April 1898-1908 Thiebaut Freres, Fumiere et Gavignot
June 1898 to March 1899 A. (Auguste) Griffoul et Cie
24 October 1898, MM. Fumiere et Gavignot
1899 Camille Groult, heir to Dargenton et Groult
1901 L. Gasne
1902 E. Gruet Jeune
1902 G. Sevin
1903 Pierre Griffoul
1904 Philippet
1906-1908 H. Gonot et E. Joret
1910 C. Durant
1912 Valsuani
1912-1913 Phillippe Montagutelli
1913 Rene Fulda
1898-1918 Le Blanc-Barbedienne
1902-1917 Alexis Rudier (1902 to 1952)

NOVEMBER 17, 1917 AUGUSTE RODIN DIES

1917-1952 Alexis Rudier (1902-1952)
1952-1980's Georges Rudier
1964-1978 Susse
1969- Godard
1973- Coubertin

RODIN FORGERIES @ MUSEO SOUMAYA:
  • 1. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840- Meudon, Francia 1917), Mascara del hombre de la nariz rota, Masque l’homme au nez casse, 1863-1864, Bronce con patina negra, cade oscuro y verde, 31.2 x 19 x 16.3 cm, base 12.5 x 15.1 x 15.3 cm, Firma: rodin, en la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 2. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia 1917), La Edad de Bronce, L’Age d’Airain, 1875-1876, Bronze con patina cafe, 180.7 x 66.1 x 60.9 cm, Fundidor: Alexis Rudier, Firma: Rodin, en la base al derecha http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 3. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Cabeza dei padre Pierre-Julien Eymard, Tete du pere Pierre-Julien Eymard, 1863, Bronzce con patina negra y verde, 15.3 x 11 x 11.5 cm, base 8.5 x 8.5 x 8.5 cm, Fundidor: Alexis Rudier, 1925-1926, Firma: A Rodin, en el cuello a la derecha http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 4. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia 1917), Jules Dalou, Jules Dalou, 1883, Bronce con patina cafe y verde, 52 x 43 x 23.7 cm; base 3.3 x 19 x 20 cm, Fundidor: Alexis Rudier, Paris, Firma: A Rodin, en el hombro izquierdo http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 5. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Mercurio de pie, Mercure debout, 1888, Bronce con patina cafe y verde, 36 x 37.8 x 20.6 cm; base 3 x 22 x 13 cm, Fundidor: Musee rodin, 1965, Num. de serieL 12/12, Firma: A Rodin, en la piena izquierda http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 6. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840,- Meudon, Francia, 1917), La joven madre, La jeune mere, 1885, Bronce con patina cafe y verde, 38.7 x 36.4 x 26 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Paris, Firma: A Rodin, en la base bajo la mano izquierda de la madre http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 7. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Suzon, Suzon, 1872, Porcelana de Sevres, 23.3 x 13.1 x 12.7 cm; base 10,5 x 11.1 x 11.1, Firma: A Rodin, en el borde a la derecha, Inscripcion: SUZON/SCULPe RODIN en la placa metalica http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 8. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), San Juan Bautista predicando, Saint Jean Baptist prechant, 1878, Bronce con patina cafe oscuro, negra y verde, 50 x 16 x 29 cm, Fundidro: Georges Rudier, Paris, Ejemplar de una edicion de 12, Firma: A Rodin, en la base entre los pies http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 9. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), La eterna primavera (o Cefiro y la tierra o Juventud o ideal), L’eternel printemps, 1884, Bronce con patina cafe, 51.9 x 48.5 x 36.8 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Paris, Firma: A Rodin, en la base a la derecha http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 10. Auguse Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), La Sombra, L’Ombre, 1898, Bronce con patina negra y verde, 95 x 53.4 x 28.5 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Musee Rodin, 1967, Ejemplar de una edicion de 12, Firma: A Rodin, en la base al lado del pie izquierdo http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 11. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Las tres Sombras, Les trois Ombres, 1880, Bronce con patina cafe y negra, 193 x 187.5 x 108.4 cm, Fundidor: Coubertin, Musee Rodin, 1989, Num. de serieL 7/8, Firma: A Rodin, a los pies de la, Sombra izquierda http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 12. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), El hombre que cae, L’homme qui tombe, 1882, Bronce con patina cafe, 58.8 x 39.9 x 31.2 cm, Fundidor: E Godard, Musee Rodin, 1981, Num: de serie 10/12 , Firma: A Rodin, en la base al izquierda http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 13. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Hijo prodigo, Enfant prodigue, c. 1885 -1887, Bronce, con patina cafe, 55.5 x 24.6 x 30.7 cm, Fundidor: Alexis Rudier, Paris, Firma: A Rodin, en la base a la derecha http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 14. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), La mano de Dios, La main de Dieu, c. 1894, Bronce con patina cafe, 119.1 x 82.2 81.5 cm, Fundidor: E Godard, Musee Rodin, 1981, Firma: A Rodin, en en la superficie lis de la base y arriba a la izquierda http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 15. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), La martir, La martyre, 1885, Bronce con patina cafe, 27.6 x 148 x 98.5 cm, Num: de serie 7, Firma: A Rodin, en el cabello http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 16. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), El hombre que cae, L’homme qui tombe, 1882, Bronce con patina cafe, 58.8 x 39.9 x 31.2 cm, Fundidor: E Godard, Musee Rodin, 1981, Num: de serie 10/12 , Firma: A Rodin, en la base al izquierda http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 17. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Estudio para Iris, mensajera de los dioses, Etude pour Iris, messagere des dieux, 1890-1891, Bronce con patina cafe, 75.3 x 75.9 x 41.3 cm, Fundidor: Musee Rodin, 1958, Num: de serie 3/12 , Firma: A Rodin, en la platna del pie derecho http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 18. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Venus, Venus, Bronce con patina negra, 102.7 x 23.9 x 23. 8 cm, Fundidor: E Godard, Musee Rodin, 1977, Num: de serie 6/12 , Firma: A Rodin, en la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 19. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), El sucubo, Le succube, Bronce con patina cafe oscuro y verdo, 23.2 x 16.5 x 17.3 cm, Firma: A Rodin, en la base a la derecha http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 20. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Illusiones recibidas por la berra, Illusions recues par la terre, 1895, Bronce con patina negra y verde, 51.3 x 81.4 x 56 cm, Fundidor: Alexis Rudier, 1920, Firma: A Rodin, en la base a la derecha http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 21. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), El hombre que cae, L’homme qui tombe, 1882, Bronce con patina cafe, 58.8 x 39.9 x 31.2 cm, Fundidor: E Godard, Musee Rodin, 1981, Num: de serie 10/12 , Firma: A Rodin, en la base al izquierda http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 22. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Genio remontando el vuel, Genie prenant son essor, c. 1880-1885, , Bronce con patina cafe oscuro, 46.5 x 34. 5 x 49.7 cm, Fundidor: Alexis Rudier, Paris, Num: de serie 1/12 , Firma: A Rodin, en la base entre los pies http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 23. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Juventud triunfante, Jeunesse triomphante, 1894, Bronce con patina cafe y verde, 51.7 x 45.7 x 34. 5 cm, Firma: A Rodin, en la base al frente http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 24. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Las metamorfosis de Ovidio, Les metamorphoses d’Ovide, 1886, Bronce con patina cafe, 32.4 x 40.3 x 25.8 cm, Fundidor: L Perzinka, Num: de serie 7/12 , Firma: A Rodin, en la base, bajo el brazo izquierdo de el http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
The former Musee Rodin curator Monique Laurent documents that Leon Perzinka foundry worked with Auguste Rodin from 1896-1901. The edition of 12 is posthumous French practice dating from the 1950’s or later.
  • 25. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), El atieta, L’athlete, 1901-1904, Bronce con patina negra, 39.6 x 28 x 24. 8 cm, Firma: Rodin, en la base al izquierda http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 26. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Triton y la sirena, Triton et la sirene, 1896, Bronce con patina cafe, 23 x 25.8 x 14.6 cm, base 2 cm de altura, Firma: A Rodin, en la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 27. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), El hombre que cae, L’homme qui tombe, 1882, Bronce con patina cafe, 58.8 x 39.9 x 31.2 cm, Fundidor: E Godard, Musee Rodin, 1981, Num: de serie 10/12 , Firma: A Rodin, en la base al izquierda http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 28. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), El arbol viejo, Le vieil arbre, c. 1885, Bronce con patina cafe oscuro, 39.1 x 39 x 26.7 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Musee Rodin, 1987, Num: de serie 6/8 , Firma: A RODIN, cerca del codo derecho de Afrodita http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 29, Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Polifermo, Polyphemus, 1888, Bronce con patina cafe, 24.2 x 15.8 x 14.5 cm, Fundidor: Alexis Rudier, Firma: A Rodin, en la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 30. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917),La eterna primavera (o Cefiro y la tierra o Juventud o ideal), L’eternel printemps, 1884, Bronce con patina cafe, 51.9 x 48.5 x 36.9 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, paris, Firma: A Rodin, en la base a la derecha http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 31. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), El beso, Le baiser, 1886, Bronce con patina cafe, Fundidor: Barbedienne, Firma: A Rodin, en la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 32. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), La Danaide, c. 1888 Bronce con patina cafe, 32.6 x 62.7 x 45 cm, Firma: A Rodin, en la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 33. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Las bendiciones, Les benedictions, 1894, Bronce con patina cafe y verde, 81.4 x 71.8 x 60.3 cm, Fundidor: Alexis Rudier, Firma: A Rodin, en la base a la derecha http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 34. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Primera maqueta de Los burgueses de Calais, Premiere maquette de Les bourgeois de Calais, 1884, Bronce con patina cafe y verde, 59 x 3 x 37.3 x 32 cm, Fundidor: E Godard, Paris, Num: de serie: 4, Firma: A Rodin, a los pies de Andrieu d’Andres http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 35. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Andrieu d’Andres, Andrieu d’Andres, 1890, Bronce con patina cafe y verde, 198 x 132 x 94.5 cm, Fundidor: Coubertin, Musee Rodin, 1989, Num. de serie: 8/8, Firma: A Rodin, en la base al lado del pie derecho http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 36. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Jean d’aire, Jean d’Aire, 1885, Bronce con patina negra y cafe, 46.6 x 16.5 x 14.6 cm, Fundidor: Alexis Rudier, Firma: A Rodin, en la base bajo el pie izquierdo http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 37. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Gran mano izquierda, Grande main gauche, 1885, Bronce con patina negra, cafe y verde, 13.9 x 34.3 x 16 cm, Fundidor: Alexis Rudier, Paris, Firma: A Rodin, en el antebrazo http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 38. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Gran mano crispada, Grande main crispee, 1884-1886, Bronce con patina verde y negra, 46.4 x 18.7 x 30.2 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Paris, 1068, Firma: A Rodin, en la base a la derecha http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 39. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Cabez del Espiritu de la guerra, Tete de l’esprit de la guerre, c. 1883, Bronce con patina verde y cafe, 15.7 x 14.5 x 14.5 cm; tiene una base metalica al centro de 5 mm de altura, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Musee Rodin, 1965, Ejemplar de una edicion de 12, Firma: A Rodin, en la base a la izquierda http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 40. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Mano derecha de Pierre de Wiessant, main droite de Pierre d Wiessant, c. 1884-1888, Bronce con patina negra y verde, 33.9 x 24.2 x 21.6 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Musee Rodin, 1962, Num. de serie: 9/12, Firma: A Rodin, en la muneca http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 41. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Pierre de Wiessant, Pierre de Wiessant, c. 1884-1888, Bronce con patina cafe, 44.8 x 21 x 22 cm, Fundidor: Alexis Rudier, Paris, Firma: A Rodin, en la base bajo el pie derecho http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 42. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Jean d’Aire, Jean d’Aire, 1885, Bronce con patina cafe oscuro, 68.5 x 22 x 24 cm, Fundidor: Susse, Musee Rodin, Paris, 1976, Firma: A Rodin, enla base frente http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 43. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Eustache de Saint-Pierre, Eustache de Saint-Pierre, 1886, Bronce con patina verde, cafe y negre, 97.5 x 27 x 42.6 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Paris, Musee Rodin, 1962, Ejemplar de una edicion de 12, Firma: A Rodin, en la base entre los pies http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 44. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Balzac con habito de monje dominico, Balzac en robe de dominicain, Bronce con patina cafe oscuro y verde, 106.4 x 50.8 x 38.5 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Paris, Num. d serie: 4/12, Firma: A Rodin, en el habito abajo a la derecha http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 45. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Mascara de Rolando, Masque de Roland, c. 1900, Bronce con patina cafe y verde, 22.5 x 18.2 x 11.2 cm, Fundidor: Susse, Num. de serie: 1, Firma: monograma a la izquierda http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 46. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Torso del hombre que camina, Torse de l’homee qui marche, c. 1880, Bronce con patina cafe y verde, 107.6 x 68 x 43.2 cum, Num. de serie: 8/8, Firma: A Rodin, en la piema izquierda http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 47. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Estudio de una mano izquierda, ude pour une main, c. 1884-1885, Bronce con pna caf verde, 14.4 x 5.5 x 6.2 cm; base 6 x 6.2 x 6 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Par, Firma: A Rodin, en la mu http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 48. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), El secreto, Le secret, c. 1910, Bronce con patina cafe y verde, 11.8 x 6 x 5.1 cm, Fundidor: Alexis Rudier, Firma: A Rodin, en la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 49. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Mano derecha no. 1, Main no. 1, c. 1885-1910, Bronce con patina verde y cafe, 11.9 x 4.8 x 5.9 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Musee Rodin, 1960, Ejemplar de una edicion de 12, Firma: A Rodin, en la muneca http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 50. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Mano dercha (mano no. 12), Main droite (main no. 12), Sin fecha, Bronce con patina cafe y verde, 6.3 x 2.3 x 4 cm; base 4 x 4 x 4 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Paris, Firma: A Rodin, en la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 51. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Mano derecha (mano 27), Main droite (main no. 27), c 1885-1910, Bronce con patina cafe y verde, 11.5 x 7 x 4.5 cm; base 4.8 x 5 x 5 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Musee Rodin, 1964, Ejemplar de una edicion de 12, Firma: A Rodin, en la muneca http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 52. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Mano izquierda no. 33, Main no. 33, c. 1885-1910, Bronce con patina cafe oscuro y verde, 11.5 x 8 x 15.8 cm; base 4.4 x 8.5 x 9.5 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Musee Rodin, 1964, Ejemplar de una edicion de 12, Firma: A Rodin, en la muneca http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 53. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), La catedral, la cathedrale, 1908, Bronce con patina cafe y verde, 62.2 x 28 x 30.5 cm, Fundidor: Alexis Rudier, Paris, Firma: A Rodin, en la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 54. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Desnudo femenino arrodillado en torsion, Nu feminin agenoouille en torsion, 1883, Bronce con patina negra y cafe, 59.3 x 31.5 x 36.5 cm, Fundidor: E Godard, Musee Rodin, 1984, Num. de serie: 5/8, Firma: A Rodin, en la base al lado de la rodilla izquierda http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 55. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Movimiento de danza H, Mouvement de dance H, c. 1910, Bronce con patina negra, cafe y verde, 27.7 x 11.5 x 15.8 cm; bse 12.6 x 7 x 9 cm, Fundidor: Alexis Rudier, Musee Rodin, 1963, Num. de serie: 2/12, Firma: A Rodin, en la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 56. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Hobre sentado con piernas extendidas, Homme assis avec les jambes etendues, c. 1895, Bronce con patina cafe, 15.4 x 16 x 8.8 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Paris, Num. de serie: 7/12, Firma: A Rodin, en la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 57. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Movimiento de danza A, Mouvement de danse A, 1910, Bronce con patina verde y cafe, 70.9 x 33 x 22.2 cm, Fundidor: Georges Rudier, Paris, 1957, Nu. de serie: 8/12, Firma: A Rodin, en el interior del tobillo dercho http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 58. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Posesion, l’emprise, c. 1888, Bronce con patina cafe, negra y verde, 22.8 x 11.7 x 11.8 cm, base 3 x 12 x 8 cm, Fudidor: Alexis Rudier, Paris, Firma: A Rodin, en la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
  • 59. Auguste Rodin, Francois-Auguste-Rene Rodin, (Paris, Francia, 1840 - Meudon, Francia, 1917), Posesip, L’emprise, c. 1888, Bronce con pna cafnegra y verde, 22.8 x 11.7 x 11.8 cem; base 3 x 12 x 8 cm, Fudidor: Alexis Rudier, Par, Firma: A Rodin, en la base http://www.soumaya.com.mx - Museo Soumaya Plaza Loreto
LAW, ETHICS AND THE VISUAL ARTS
On page 816-817 of Kluwer Law International’s published 1998 Law, Ethics and the Visual Arts, Third Edition by John Henry Merryman and Albert E. Elsen wrote about “Counterfeit Art.”[FN 22]

Under the subtitle “Truth,” the authors wrote: “The most serious harm that good counterfeits do is to confuse and misdirect the search for valid learning. The counterfeit objects falsifies history and misdirects inquiry.”[FN 23]

Additionally, under the subtitle “Resource Allocation,” the authors wrote: “Museum and art historical resources are always limited. What gets acquired, displayed, conserved and studied is the result of a continuous process of triage, in which some objects can be favoured only at the expenses of others. Counterfeit objects distort the process.”[FN 24]

Finally, under the subtitle “Fraud,” the authors wrote: “There remains the most obvious harm of all: counterfeit cultural objects are instruments of fraud. Most are created in order to deceive and defraud, but even “innocent” counterfeits can, and often will, be so used. The same considerations of justice and social order that make deliberate fraud of others kinds criminal apply equally to fraud through the medium of counterfeit art...”[FN 25]

CONCLUSION
What needs to be accomplished is the full and honest disclosure of all reproductions as -reproductions- by all museums, auction houses and art dealers. If the Museo Soumaya will give full and honest disclosure for all reproductions as: -reproductions- it would allow museum patrons to give informed consent on whether they wish to attend an exhibit of reproductions, much less pay the price of admission.

But if these objects are not reproductions by definition and law, but -forgeries- with or without counterfeit signatures or inscriptions applied, much less posthumous, to create the illusion the artist created it, much less approved and signed it, then serious consequences of law may come into play for those who chose to misrepresent these -forgeries- for profit.

The reputations and legacy of living and past artists, present and future museum art patrons and the art-buying public deserve the re-establishment of the obvious; that the living presence and participation of the artist to once again be required, as it always should have been, to create the piece of art attributable to the artist if indeed it is attributed to them, much less purported to have been signed by them.


FOOTNOTES:
1.http://www.getty.edu/vow/AATFullDisplay?find=counterfeit&logic=AND&note=&english=N&prev_page=1&subjectid=300121305

2. http://www.noticiasmerida.org/2011/03/presidente-calderon-y-carlos-slim.html

3. Ibid
"La noche del martes 1 de marzo de 2011, el Presidente Felipe Calderón Hinojosa encabezó la ceremonia de inauguración del Museo Soumaya, ubicado en la Plaza Carso de la Ciudad de México, en un moderno edificio que acogerá la colección de arte privado más importante del país y de Latinoamérica, según informa la sala de prensa de la Presidencia de la República."

4. www.carlosslim.com/pdf/ING_EPSENTREVISTA_ing.pdf

5. Copyright © 1991 by Bena Mayer, ISBN 0-06-461012-8


6. http://www.michelangeloexperience.com/2010/09/saint-peters-pieta/

7.
Copyright © 1999, By West Group, ISBN 0-314-22864-0

8. Ibid

9. Copyright © 1991 by Bena Mayer, ISBN 0-06-461012-8


10.
Copyright © 1999, By West Group, ISBN 0-314-22864-0

11.
http://www.getty.edu/vow/AATFullDisplay?find=counterfeit&logic=AND&note=&english=N&prev_page=1&subjectid=300121305
12. Copyright © 1994, ISBN: 0-88740-629-7

13. Ibid

14. http://www.nga.gov/cgi-bin/tbio?tperson=1209

15. Art Journal © 1995 College Art Association, http://www.jstor.org/pss/777513

16. © 1998 National Gallery of Art ISBN 0-300-07517-0

17.http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20060803230342AAEHfdg
  • Brass is the term used for alloys of copper and zinc in a solid solution. Typically it is more than 50% copper and from 5 to 20% zinc, in comparison to bronze which is principally an alloy of copper and tin. Despite this distinction, some types of brasses are called bronzes.
  • Brass has a yellow colour, somewhat similar to gold. It is relatively resistant to tarnishing, and is often used as decoration.
  • Brass has been known to man since prehistoric times, long before zinc itself was discovered. It was produced by melting copper together with calamine, a zinc ore. During this process, the zinc is extracted from the calamine and instantly mixes with the copper. Pure zinc, on the other hand, is too reactive to have been produced by ancient metalworking techniques.
  • Bronze refers to a broad range of copper alloys, usually with tin as the main additive, but sometimes with other elements such as phosphorus, manganese, aluminum, or silicon. It is strong and tough, and has myriad uses in industry.
  • When steel is excluded from the discussion, bronze is superior to iron in nearly every application. While it develops a patina, it does not oxidize. It is considerably less brittle than iron and has a lower casting temperature. (Steel, of course, has properties with which bronze cannot compete.)
  • Copper-based alloys have lower melting points than steel and are more readily produced from their constituent metals. They are generally about 10 percent heavier than steel, although alloys using aluminium or silicon may be slightly less dense. Bronzes are softer and weaker than steel, Bronze springs are less stiff (and so store less energy) for the same bulk. It resists corrosion (especially seawater corrosion) and metal fatigue better than steel and also conducts heat and electricity better than most steels. The cost of copper-base alloys is generally higher than that of steels but lower than that of nickel-base alloys.
  • Copper and its alloys have a huge variety of uses that reflect their versatile physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. Some common examples are the high electrical conductivity of pure copper, the excellent deep-drawing qualities of cartridge case brass, the low-friction properties of bearing bronze, the resonant qualities of bell bronze, and the resistance to corrosion by sea water of several bronze alloys.
  • Bronze is the most popular metal for top-quality bells and cymbals, and more recently, saxophones. It is also widely used for cast metal sculpture. Common bronze alloys often have the unusual and very desirable property of expanding slightly just before they set, thus filling in the finest details of a mould.
  • Bronze also has very little metal-on-metal friction, which made it invaluable for the building of cannons where iron cannonballs would otherwise stick in the barrel. It is still widely used today for springs, bearings, bushings and similar fittings, and is particularly common in the bearings of small electric motors. Phosphor bronze is particularly suited to precision-grade bearings and springs.
  • Bronze is typically 60% copper and 40% tin. Alpha bronze consists of the alpha solid solution of tin in copper. Alpha bronze alloys of 4-5% tin are used to make coins, springs, turbines and blades.
  • Commercial bronze (otherwise known as brass) is 90% copper and 10% zinc, and contains no tin. It is stronger than copper and it has equivalent ductility. It is used for screws and wires.
  • Bronze vs. Brass
  • 1. Bronze is the familiar brownish color whereas brass is the more greyish greenish, bluish. Both will weather to the fine verdigris patina without maintenance.
  • 2. They differ in the amont of metals used in the amalgam. Brass is a combination of copper and zinc while brass is a combination of copper and tin.
  • 3. Bronze items are four times more expensive than brass.
  • 4. Bronze is much stronger and more corrosion resistant than brass.
  • 5. Bronze is harder and more abrasion resistant than brass
  • 6. As brass deteriorates, it creates an oxide (a grey white powder - zinc oxide). Zinc oxide is acetic and will attack the lignum in wood. Once the lignum is gone the wood fiber is open to rot
  • 7. Brass melts at lower temperature and therefore use less energy to melt. It machines and polishes much easier than Bronze and therefore the price to make a fitting from it is lower. Also, it goes away much more quickly and therefore the customer will have to purchase replacement parts much sooner.
  • 8. Bronze is richer, more golden in color than brass which is usually a yellow color. If there is any doubt in your mind, try an easy test. Using the smallest drill bit that you have, drill a small hole in an unimportant area of the fitting and look at the metal turnings that come out. If they are long and stringy, the fittings are probably Bronze. If the turnings are small (like snow flakes), then the metal is probably brass and even more probably a leaded brass.

18. © 2010 ISBN 978-0-691-14897-7, National Gallery of Art, Washington, www.nga.gov

19. Copyright © 1999, By West Group, ISBN 0-314-22864-0

20. Renoir Sculptor by Paul Haesaerts, Published 1947, Printed by V. Van Dieren & Co and J. E. Buschmann, Printed in Belgium.

21. © 1981, ISBN 0-89468-001-3 (pbk)

22. © Kluwer Law International 1998, ISBN 90-411-0697-9

23. Ibid


24. Ibid

25. Ibid

2 Comments:

Anonymous Hunter Mann said...

Hi Gary,
I found your blogsite from the link provided on NPR comments re the new Soumaya museum in Mexico City. I find your extensive research fascinating, shocking, disappointing(in the museum's creator), and of great interest, enough that I have sent it the story & comments link to several artists, curators, art collectors and even documentary filmmakers.
Thanks for opening my eyes.
I have worked on films in Mexico City and plan to return to the city this summer, specifically to see this new museum. I do like the building's exterior design and plan to buy some scale models of it, figuring that the gift shop there offers them is white marble, brass, bronze, copper and other metals...(pun).
Best wishes, Hunter Mann, filmworker since 1993.

9:41 AM, May 14, 2011  
Blogger maruf hosen said...

I saw this site, always going in a very nice theme.such matters is very difficult to find many great subject now is really nice, but I really liked your site.
michelangelo marble

10:18 PM, March 17, 2013  

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