Wednesday, November 30, 2016

Texas A&M's J. Wayne Stark Galleries FRAUD, "Rodin: Portraits of a Lifetime," Just Not Auguste Rodin's Lifetime

NOTE: Footnotes are enclosed as: [FN ].

The Creator (Bas-relief), c. 1900, Musee Rodin cast II/IV in 1984, Bronze, Coubertin, 10 x 14 1/4 x 2 1/2 in. (40.6 x 36.2 x 6.4 cm), Signed and numbered A. Rodin No. II/IV with Coubertin foundry mark and inscribed © By Musee Rodin 1984. Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation, 1568. [page 178, Rodin, A Magnificent Obsession, ISBN 1 85894 1 143]
Photo: http://today.tamu.edu/2016/11/22/rare-opportunity-to-view-work-of-master-sculptor-rodin-through-dec-17/
NON-DISCLOSED POSTHUMOUS FORGERY WITH A COUNTERFEIT SIGNATURE

In the Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, Selections from the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Collections October 13 - December 17, 2016 exhibition at the Texas A&M's J. Wayne Stark Galleries, the above titled The Creator (Bas-relief) is 1 of 15 non-disclosed posthumous [1963-1993] 2nd-generation-removed forgeries with a counterfeit "A Rodin" signatures in bogus editions. 

On page 661 of the Seventh Edition of Black's Law Dictionary, -forgery- is defined as: "the act of fraudulently making a false document or altering a real one to be used as if genuine."[FN 1] 

Auguste Rodin died in 1917. From 1963 to 1993, Auguste Rodin [d 1917] was some 46 to 76 years dead. 

The dead don't sculpt, much less sign and number editions.

Yet, in the Texas A&M Today's published November 28, 2016 "Rare Opportunity To View Work of Master Sculptor Rodin Through Dec 17" media release by Leslie Henton, the communication specialist wrote: 
  • "[Texas A&M University Art Galleries Department director Catherine] Hastedt notes the Rodin exhibition is a rare and valuable opportunity for people to view works from one of the world’s most treasured sculptors. 'Exhibitions of this caliber, especially sculpture exhibitions, are very expensive. We are grateful to the Cantor Foundation for making it possible to bring this to Texas A&M. Faculty, staff and students are awed that they can see original Rodin sculptures that normally they would have to travel across the country or over to France to appreciate.'"  [FN 2] 

[mine]

Rhetorically, would Texas A&M Faculty, staff and students still be in "awe" if it was fully and clearly disclosed there are no "original Rodin sculptures" in this exhibition, that the director Catherine Hastedt, the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation and others are so eager to falsely attribute as original works of visual art i.e., sculptures to a dead Auguste Rodin?

Remember, the dead don't sculpt.

On page 670 of the Seventh Edition of Black's Law Dictionary, -fraud- is defined as: "a knowing misrepresentation of the truth or concealment of a material fact to induce another to act to his or her detriment."[FN 3]

The Texas A&M University Galleries' inducement for this fraud, in part but not limited to, is listed on their website: "GIVING TO THE ARTS - Your gifts provide enrichment opportunities through special exhibitions, educational workshops and programs, art activities and care for the University Art Collection and the Permanent Collection of the J Wayne Stark Galleries and Forsyth Galleries."[FN 4]

So, despite "The University Art Galleries Department (UART) supports the educational mission of Texas A&M University by providing impactful visual arts experiences to diverse campus and regional community audiences - steward of its collections, promoting arts advocacy and engagement across the university,"[FN 5] Texas A&M's J. Wayne Stark Galleries, by exhibiting 15 non-disclosed posthumous [1963-1993] 2nd-generation-removed forgeries with a counterfeit "A Rodin" signatures in bogus editions as "original Rodin sculptures," is making "a knowing misrepresentation of the truth or concealment of a material fact to induce another to act to his or her detriment" which is one legal definition of fraud.

This monograph documents the facts behind this fraud.




[2 pages] Written and Distributed by the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation Director Judith Sobol 


The term cover-up is defined as: "given to mean to hide a thing that is unlawful or to evade and impede investigations."[FN 6]

SUMMARY AUTHORIZED POSTHUMOUS CASTING OF THE WORK OF AUGUSTE RODIN
In an attempt to to defuse and confuse the public, news media, exhibition venues and other interested parties seemingly to "evade and impede investigations" into legitimate issues of authenticity, the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation and many of its cultural museums and venues that exhibit the foundation's collection of non-disclosed posthumous 2nd-generation-removed forgeries with counterfeit "A Rodin" signatures in bogus editions, have received and distribute a 2 page "Summary: Authorized Posthumous Casting of the Work of Auguste Rodin" paper.  In part, it states: "During his lifetime, Rodin at times licensed commercial foundries to cast unlimited editions of his works. - The concept of the 'limited edition,' as it is known today, came into being only at the beginning of the twentieth-century, when sculptors began to number their casts and new desire for a 'rare' work of art was born."[FN 7]

On page 70 of Ralph Mayer’s 1999 Harper Collins Dictionary of Art Terms & Techniques, -cast- is defined as: “to reproduce an object, such as a piece of sculpture, by means of a MOLD”[FN 8] which obviously results in reproductions.

Yet, the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation website would have the people believe and/or suspend disbelief that cast should be defined as: "a sculpture produced from a mold; (v) to make sculpture from a mold"[FN 9] which seems to fit into their mythology of "casting sculptures." 

So, which definition is accurate? 

U.S. COPYRIGHT LAW
Under U.S. Copyright Law 101. Definitions, a “work of visual art” i.e., -sculpture- is defined as: “multiple cast, carved, or fabricated sculptures of 200 or fewer that are consecutively numbered by the author and bear the signature or other identifying mark of the author.”[FN 10] Additionally, under U.S. Copyright Law 101. Definitions, a -derivative work- is defined as: “a work based upon one or more preexisting works, such as art reproduction.”[FN 11] Furthermore, under U.S. Copyright 106A, it states the “Rights of Attribution - shall not apply to any reproduction.”[FN 12]

In other words, under U.S. Copyright Law, reproductions are derivatives which cannot be -attributed- to a living artist, much less a dead one.

REPRODUCTION RIGHTS OF THOSE OBJECTS GIVEN BY HIM
So, does Musee Rodin in Paris acknowledge Auguste Rodin's posthumous casts as reproductions? Yes. This is confirmed on page 285 in the former Musee Rodin curator Monique Laurent’s “Observations on Rodin and His Founders” essay, published in the National Gallery of Art’s published 1981 Rodin Rediscovered catalogue the curator wrote about Auguste Rodin's 1916 Will: “notwithstanding the transfer of artistic ownership authorized to the State of M. Rodin, the latter expressly reserves for himself the enjoyment, during his life, of the reproduction rights of those objects given by him.”[FN 13]

ALL REPRODUCTION RIGHTS TO HIS ART
These specific details of Auguste Rodin’s Will are additional confirmed on page 504 of the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation assisted published 1993 Rodin, Shape of Genius biography by Ruth Butler. In part, the author wrote: “a draft of an act of donation was drawn up and signed in Meudon on April 1, 1916, in the presence of Clementel, Valention (representing the Ministere des Beaux-Arts), and Antole de Monzie, the lawyer and deputy who had helped prepare the deed. The document included a number of safeguards for Rodin: at the Hotel Biron--thenceforth to be called the Musee Rodin--he was to be in charge of personnel. He would have the right to use the building until the end of his life, and the state would install heat. All reproduction rights to his art would remain with Rodin during his lifetime.”[FN 14]

Therefore, aside "high standards of craftsmanship" which is argumentative, what is not argumentative is the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation's definition of cast is contradicted not only by independent published definitions but by Auguste Rodin, the State of France, some of the same Rodin scholars the foundation funds for catalogues and the Musee Rodin it purchases the vast majority of their collection of non-disclosed posthumous 2nd-generation-removed forgeries with counterfeit "A. Rodin" signatures in bogus editions.

CAST BRONZES FROM HIS ORIGINAL MOLDS AND MODELS
Then the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation and its director Judith Sobol would have the public believe and act on the belief that: "While some think that such posthumous casts take away from the purity of Rodin's work, others are confident that Rodin fully understood both the process and the result of posthumous casting and that he trusted his executors and the Musee Rodin when he authorized them to cast bronzes from his original molds and models."[FN 15]

Nothing could be further from the truth. The following February 1, 2016 correspondence from the Musee Rodin undermines the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation's written assertions that the Musee Rodin "cast bronzes from his original models and models."






The Musee Rodin does not cast from "sculptor's [Auguste Rodin] first conception in plaster or clay." This devastating admission was confirmed in a February 1, 2000 Fax from the Musee Rodin curator Antoinette Normand-Romain, where the curator wrote: 
  • “In response to your fax of 26 January, I precise that when the edition of a new subject shall be decided, we derive a new ordeal in the molds that our listings have to avoid sending the originals platres a foundry. These molds are the molds of Rodin, and we therefore provide a perfect fidelity. This way the original plasters remain intact.” [Google Translate] 






Additionally, at one time this was confirmed on the Musee Rodin's website as late as April 2000 by the Musee Rodin curator Antoinette Le Normaid-Romain, who wrote: :
  • “Consequently, whenever it is decided to release a new ‘subject,’ a copy is first made from the old mould which can be sent without risk to the foundry where it undergoes the necessary preparations for casting. It is coated with an unmoulding agent, usually in a dark colour, and cut, before being cast again. This practice not only ensures absolute fidelity to the original but also preserves the old plasters which are obviously more valuable since they were made during the lifetime of Rodin.”[FN 16]


In other words, by the Musee Rodin avoiding sending the hypothetical original plasters to the foundry, they have willingly given up the authentic original surface details made by the working fingers of Auguste Rodin himself or that Auguste Rodin approved through his collaboration with his “sculpteur reproducteur habituel”[FN 17] Henri Lebosse and other assistants. Each time the surface of one of these subjects is approximated by the necessary crude handling of the materials used in the reproduction processes, there is visible change. The resulting pieces may be interesting to look at, but it is an absurdity to pretend they are just the way Rodin would have wanted and intended for them to appear.


Photo: http://today.tamu.edu/2016/11/22/rare-opportunity-to-view-work-of-master-sculptor-rodin-through-dec-17/
RODIN, PORTRAITS OF A LIFETIME AT TEXAS A&M'S STARK GALLERIES

The following Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation's own Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, Selections from the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Collections exhibition checklist from a prior venue, published catalogues and other sources confirms that Auguste Rodin was long dead when they were cast.





1963 - 1 OF 15 Posthumous Forgeries 

The above Balzac/Jean D’Aire, Nude Study B with the Head of Jean D’Aire is a "Musee Rodin cast 8 in an edition of  12, 1963."

On page 68 of the Musee Rodin’s published Bronzes of Rodin, it is written: “The interministerial decree relating to the Musee Rodin, summarizing and complementing the rulings made concerning the museum’s commercial activities, on 5 September 1978 and 4 May 1995, stipulates that “these editions are limited to twelve…”[FN 18]

Yet, on page 176 of the Musee Rodin’s published Bronzes of Rodin by Antoinette Le Normand Romain, the Balzac/Jean D’Aire, Nude Study B with the Head of Jean D’Aire is listed as having two cast by Perzinka in December 1900 and twelve cast between 1951 and 1964 by Georges Rudier. The Musee Rodin’s is listed as “no. 0.”[FN 19] That adds up to 15 casts.

Rhetorically, if the Musee Rodin can't count, should we count on anything they say, much less from their surrogates?

Regardless, in 1963, Auguste Rodin [d 1917] died 46 years earlier. The Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, just not Auguste Rodin's lifetime.







1976  - 2 OF 15 Posthumous Forgeries

On page 180, of the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation's published 2001 Rodin, A Magnificent Obsession catalogue, the above Nude Study of Balzac (Type 'C') is listed as follows: "Probably 1892, Musee Rodin cast 12 in 1976, Bronze, George Rudier, 50 1/4 x 27 1/4 x 22 1/4 in. (127.6 x 70.5 x 57.8 cm), Signed and numbered A. Rodin No. 12 and inscribed © By Musee Rodin 1976. Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Collection, promised gift to the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation, 16900." [FN 20] 

Additionally, on page 167 of the Musee Rodin’s published Bronzes of Rodin by Antoinette Le Normand Romain, the Balzac, Nude Study C, Large Version is listed as having four cast by Alexis Rudier and ten casts between 1957 and 1976 by Georges Rudier.[FN 21] The Cantor Foundation’s cast is inscribed “no. 12” even though it is the 16th one cast chronologically.

Remember, the Musee Rodin wants the public to believe and act on the belief that “these editions are limited to twelve.”


Regardless, in 1976, Auguste Rodin [d 1917] died  59 years earlier. The Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, just not Auguste Rodin's lifetime.






1978 - 3 OF 15 Posthumous Forgeries

On page 183, of the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation's published 2001 Rodin, A Magnificent Obsession catalogue, the above Head of Pope Benedict XV is listed as follows: "1915, Musee Rodin cast 10 in 1978, Bronze, George Rudier, 10 x 7 x 18 1/2 in. (25.4 x 17.8 x 24.1 cm), Signed and numbered A. Rodin No. 10 and inscribed Georges Rudier Fondeur, Paris,  Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Collection, 1608."[FN 22]

Additionally, on page 203 of the Musee Rodin’s published Bronzes of Rodin by Antoinette Le Normand Romain, the Benedict XV is listed as having three casts by Alexis Rudier in 1917, five between 1919 and 1930 and eight casts between 1958 and 1978. That totals sixteen. The Cantor Foundation’s “N’ 10”[FN 23], cast in 1978, is the sixteenth one cast chronologically.

Remember the Musee Rodin wants the public to believe and act on the belief that “these editions are limited to twelve.”


Regardless, in 1978, Auguste Rodin [d 1917] died 61 years earlier. The Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, just not Auguste Rodin's lifetime.






1979 - 4 OF 15 Posthumous Forgeries

On page 183, of the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation's published 2001 Rodin, A Magnificent Obsession catalogue, the above Mask of Hanako (Type 'D') is listed as follows: "1908, Musee Rodin cast 8/12 in 1979, Bronze, Godard, 7 7/8 x 7 x 6 in. (20 x 17.8 x 15.2 cm), Signed and numbered A. Rodin No. 8 and inscribed © MUSEE RODIN 1979,  Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation, 4140." [FN 24]

Additionally, on page 403 of the Musee Rodin’s published Bronzes of Rodin by Antoinette Le Normand Romain, the Hanako, Type D is listed being cast in 1974 “Signed A. Rodin on the neck” with “No. 0 beneath the signature.”[FN 25]

Aside Auguste Rodin [d 1917] was some 57 years dead in 1974 and could not have signed anything, Numbering 0 to 12 is thirteen casts making the Cantor Foundation’s “8/12” actually number 9 chronologically.


Regardless, in 1979, Auguste Rodin [d 1917] died 62 years earlier. The Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, just not Auguste Rodin's lifetime.





1979 - 5 OF 15 Posthumous Forgeries

On page 181, of the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation's published 2001 Rodin, A Magnificent Obsession catalogue, the above Mask of the Man with a Broken Nose is listed as follows: "1863-4, Musee Rodin cast 12/12 in 1979, Bronze, Coubertin, 18 1/4 x 7 3/8 x 6 1/2 in. (46.2 x 18.7 x 16.5 cm), Signed and numbered A. Rodin No. 12 with Coubertin foundry mark and inscribed  © By Musee Rodin 1979,  Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Collection, promised gift to Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation, 1368."[FN 26]

Additionally, on page 413 of the Musee Rodin’s published Bronzes of Rodin by Antoinette Le Normand Romain, the Man with the Broken Nose, Mask is listed as having “twelve casts by Fonder de Coubertin, between 1975 and 1979”[FN 27] with one “unnumbered.” 

Yet, the Musee Rodin’s cast is listed as “0/12”[FN 28] which taken to its logical conclusion would make 13 casts, 14 casts if you include the unnumbered one. That would possibly make the Cantor Foundation’s “cast 12/12” the thirteenth or fourteenth cast.


Regardless, in 1979, Auguste Rodin [d 1917] died 62 years earlier. The Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, just not Auguste Rodin's lifetime.



Mask of the Man with a Broken Nose is listed as follows: "1863-4, Musee Rodin cast 12/12 in 1979, Bronze, Coubertin, 18 1/4 x 7 3/8 x 6 1/2 in. (46.2 x 18.7 x 16.5 cm), Signed and numbered A. Rodin No. 12 with Coubertin foundry mark and inscribed  © By Musee Rodin 1979,  Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Collection, promised gift to Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation, 1368. [page 183, Rodin, A Magnificent Obsession, ISBN 1 85894 1 143]
Photo: http://today.tamu.edu/2016/11/22/rare-opportunity-to-view-work-of-master-sculptor-rodin-through-dec-17/
NON-DISCLOSED POSTHUMOUS FORGERY WITH A COUNTERFEIT SIGNATURE

In the Texas A&M Today's published November 28, 2016 "Rare Opportunity To View Work of Master Sculptor Rodin Through Dec 17" media release by Leslie Henton, the communication specialist wrote: 
  • "The exhibition, 'Rodin: Portraits of a Lifetime,' underwritten by the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation in Los Angeles, explores the portraiture work that was the main source of income for Rodin during his life, [Texas A&M University Art Galleries Department director Catherine] Hastedt says, adding that her favorite piece in the exhibit is 'Mask of the Man with the Broken Nose.' This piece was originally sculpted in clay as a full head but the back of the clay froze in Rodin’s studio and broke off,” she explains. 'Rodin was intrigued by the shape of what was left and cast it as a mask.  This was an entirely new thing in the art world and it caused some uproar, not only because it was a mask, but also because the face was not aesthetically perfect.'"[FN 29]

[Mine]

Despite the Alice in Wonderland inference that "The exhibition, 'Rodin: Portraits of a Lifetime,' underwritten by the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation in Los Angeles, explores the portraiture work that was the main source of income for Rodin during his life," the Texas A&M University Art Galleries Department director Catherine Hastedt's "favorite piece in the exhibit is Mask of the Man with the Broken Nose" was posthumously cast in 1979. A dead Auguste Rodin [d 1917] has never seen the "piece" that the director and others are so eager to falsely attribute to him. In addition, 14 other "pieces" in this exhibition were posthumously cast between 1963 and 1993, some 46 to 76 years after Auguste Rodin's death in 1917. Therefore, how does an exhibition "explores the portraiture work that was the main source of income for Rodin during his life," if 15 of the 17 "pieces," falsely attributed to dead Auguste Rodin [d 1917], are non-disclosed posthumous 2nd-generation-removed forgeries with counterfeit "A Rodin" signature in bogus editions?

Remember, The Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, just not Auguste Rodin's lifetime.







1980 - 6 OF 15 Posthumous Forgeries

On page 180, of the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation's published 2001 Rodin, A Magnificent Obsession catalogue, the above Monumental Head of Balzac (Enlargement) is listed as follows: "1897, Musee Rodin cast 9/12 in 1980, Bronze, Georges Rudier,  10 x 17 1/2 x 16 in. (50.8 x 44.5 x 40.61 cm), Signed and numbered A. Rodin No. 9 and inscribed Georges Rudier and © Musee Rodin 1980,  Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation, 1301."[FN 30]

Additionally, on page 179 of the Musee Rodin’s published Bronzes of Rodin by Antoinette Le Normand Romain, the Balzac, Monumental Head is listed as one posthumous cast by the Alexis Rudier foundry [1902-1952] for Jules Mastbaum and twelve posthumous casts by the Georges Rudier foundry [1952 to 1980’s]  “nos. 0 to 11/11 and 1/1” and listed as “Signed A. Rodin.”[FN 31]

Aside Auguste Rodin [d 1917] was dead and could not have signed anything, thirteen casts makes the Cantor Foundation’s “No. 9” the tenth one cast chronologically.


Regardless, in 1980, Auguste Rodin [d 1917] died 63 years earlier. The Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, just not Auguste Rodin's lifetime.







1980 - 7 OF 15 Posthumous Forgeries

On page 180, of the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation's published 2001 Rodin, A Magnificent Obsession catalogue, the above Monumental Head of Balzac (Enlargement) is listed as follows: "1897, Musee Rodin cast 9/12 in 1980, Bronze, Georges Rudier,  10 x 17 1/2 x 16 in. (50.8 x 44.5 x 40.61 cm), Signed and numbered A. Rodin No. 9 and inscribed Georges Rudier and © Musee Rodin 1980,  Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation, 1301." [FN 30]

Additionally, on page 179 of the Musee Rodin’s published Bronzes of Rodin by Antoinette Le Normand Romain, the Balzac, Monumental Head is listed as one posthumous cast by the Alexis Rudier foundry [1902-1952] for Jules Mastbaum and twelve posthumous casts by the Georges Rudier foundry [1952 to 1980’s]  “nos. 0 to 11/11 and 1/1” and listed as “Signed A. Rodin.”[FN 31]

Aside Auguste Rodin [d 1917] was dead and could not have signed anything, thirteen casts makes the Cantor Foundation’s “No. 9” the tenth one cast chronologically.


Regardless, in 1980, Auguste Rodin [d 1917] died 63 years earlier. The Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, just not Auguste Rodin's lifetime.






1981 - 8 OF 15 Posthumous Forgeries

On page 180, of the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation's published 2001 Rodin, A Magnificent Obsession catalogue, the above Balzac in a Dominican Robe is listed as follows: "1893-94, Musee Rodin cast 9 in 1981, Bronze, Georges Rudier, 41 3/4 x 20 1/8 x 20 in. (106 x 51.2 x 50.8 cm), Inscribed  Musee Rodin 1981,  Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Collection, promised gift to the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation, 1491."[FN 34]

Additionally, on page 171 of the Musee Rodin’s published Bronzes of Rodin by Antoinette Le Normand Romain, the Balzac, in a Monk’s Habit a.k.a. Balzac in Dominican Robe is listed as “twelve casts by Georges Rudier, between 1971 and 1983 [nos. 0 to 10/10 and I and II.II].”[FN 35]

Unfortunately, “0 to 10” is eleven with “I and II/II” is two totaling thirteen making the Cantor Foundation’s “cast 9” either the 10th or 12th one cast depending on which order you count it.


Regardless, in 1981, Auguste Rodin [d 1917] died 64 years earlier. The Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, just not Auguste Rodin's lifetime.







1981 - 9 OF 15 Posthumous Forgeries

On page 182, of the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation's published 2001 Rodin, A Magnificent Obsession catalogue, the above Maquette of General Lynch is listed as follows: "1886, Musee Rodin cast 5 in 1981, Bronze, Godard, 17 3/4 x 13 3/4 x 7 7/8 in. (45.1 x 34.9 x 20cm), Signed and numbered A. Rodin/ No. 5 and inscribed  E Godard/Fondr and © Musee Rodin 1981,  Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation, 1597."[FN 36]

Additionally, on page 490 of the Musee Rodin’s published Bronzes of Rodin by Antoinette Le Normand Romain, the General Lynch is listed as two casts by Leon Perzinka, one by Alexis Rudier, one by Georges Rudier and three casts by E. Godard.[FN 37]

Once again, another one of the Cantor Foundation’s casts “cast 5” is chronologically the sixth one cast.


Regardless, in 1981, Auguste Rodin [d 1917] died 64 years earlier. The Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, just not Auguste Rodin's lifetime.








1981 - 10 OF 15 Posthumous Forgeries

On page 180, of the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation's published 2001 Rodin, A Magnificent Obsession catalogue, the above Heroic bust of Victor Hugo is listed as follows: "1890-97 or 1901-02, Musee Rodin cast 7/12 in 1981, Bronze, Coubertin, 29 1/4 x 23 1/2 x 21 1/4 in. (74.3 x 59.7 x 54 cm), Signed and numbered A. Rodin/No. 7, and inscribed  Musee Rodin 1981 with Coubertin foundry mark, ,  Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Collection, promised gift to the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation, 1181." [FN 38]

Under U.S. Copyright Law § 101. Definitions, a work of visual art i.e., sculpture is defined as: “multiple cast, carved, or fabricated sculptures of 200 or fewer that are consecutively numbered by the author and bear the signature or other identifying mark of the author.”[FN 39]

In 1981, Auguste Rodin [d 1917] was some 64 years dead. The dead don’t sign and number.


Regardless, in 1981, Auguste Rodin [d 1917] died 54 years earlier. The Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, just not Auguste Rodin's lifetime.






1983 - 11 OF 15 Posthumous Forgeries

On page 180, of the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation's published 2001 Rodin, A Magnificent Obsession catalogue, the above Bust of Young Balzac is listed as follows: "1893, Musee Rodin cast 1/8 in 1983, Bronze, Godard, 28 1/8 x 13 3/8 x 14 5/8 in. (71.4 x 34 x 37.1 cm), Inscribed  E Godard/Fondr and © Musee Rodin 1983 and E. Godard/Fondeur,  Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Collection, promised gift to the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation, 1456." [FN 40]

Additionally, on page 172 of the Musee Rodin’s published Bronzes of Rodin by Antoinette Le Normand Romain, the Balzac, Smiling Bust a.k.a. Bust of Young Balzac is listed as being “twelve casts by E. Godard, from 1988” and “Signed A. Rodin.”[FN 41]

In 1983, Auguste Rodin was some 66 years dead. The dead don’t sign.


Regardless, in 1983, Auguste Rodin [d 1917] died 54 years earlier. The Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, just not Auguste Rodin's lifetime.






1983 - 12 OF 15 Posthumous Forgeries

On page 183, of the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation's published 2001 Rodin, A Magnificent Obsession catalogue, the above Study for the Monument to Whistler is listed as follows: "1905-06, Musee Rodin cast 53/8 in 1983, Bronze, Godard, 24 3/4 x 13 x 13 1/2 in. (62.9 x 33 x 34.3 cm), Signed and numbered A. Rodin/ No. 3/8 and inscribed  E Godard/Fondr and © By Musee Rodin 1983,  Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation, 1569."[FN 42]

Additonally, on page 710 of the Musee Rodin’s published Bronzes of Rodin by Antoinette Le Normand Romain, the Monument to Whistler is listed as having “twelve casts from 1962, the first two by Georges Rudier then by E. Godard from 1983 and “Signed A. Rodin.”[FN 43]

In the Association of Art Museum Directors’ 2001 Professional Practices in Art Museum publication, it states: "museums must clearly indicate, through the use of integral markings on the objects, as well as signs, labels, and advertising, that these items are reproductions - signatures, editions numbers, and/or foundry marks on sculpture must not appear on the reproduction.”[FN 44]


Regardless, in 1983, Auguste Rodin [d 1917] died 66 years earlier. The Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, just not Auguste Rodin's lifetime.





1984 - 13 OF 15 Posthumous Forgeries

On page 178, of the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation's published 2001 Rodin, A Magnificent Obsession catalogue, the above  The Creator (Bas-relief) is listed as c. 1900, Musee Rodin cast II/IV in 1984, Bronze, Coubertin, 16 x 14 1/4 x 2 1/2 in. (40.6 x 36.2 x 6.4 cm), Signed and numbered A. Rodin No. II/IV with Coubertin foundry mark and inscribed © By Musee Rodin 1984. Iris and B. Gerald Cantor  Foundation, 1568. [FN 45]

Additonally, on page 274 of the Musee Rodin’s published Bronzes of Rodin by Antoinette Le Normand Romain, The Creator is listed as having “eleven cast by Fonder de Coubertin, from 1983”and “Signed A. Rodin.”[FN 46]

Auguste Rodin died in 1917, along with his ability to sign.


Regardless, in 1984, Auguste Rodin [d 1917] died 67 years earlier. The Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, just not Auguste Rodin's lifetime.







1992 - 14 OF 15 Posthumous Forgeries

On page 182, of the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation's published 2001 Rodin, A Magnificent Obsession catalogue, the above  Claude Lorrain is listed as 1880, Musee Rodin cast 5/8 in 1992, Bronze, Coubertin, 84 1/2 x 42 1/2 x 46 in. (214.6 x 108 x 116.8 cm), Signed and numbered A. Rodin No. 5/8 with Coubertin foundry mark and inscribed © By Musee Rodin 1992. Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Collection, promised gift to the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation, 1572.[FN 47]

Additionally, on page 486 of the Musee Rodin’s published Bronzes of Rodin by Antoinette Le Normand Romain, Claude Lorrain is listed as having one “cast by Griffoul & Lorge“ in 1892 and “ten casts by Fonderie de Coubertin, from 1983” and “Signed A. Rodin.”[FN 48]

Except for the lifetime cast by Griffon & Lorge, Auguste Rodin’s signing days died in 1917 some sixty-six years prior to 1983 and forty-six years prior to the Coubertin foundry’s going into business in 1963.


Regardless, in 1992, Auguste Rodin [d 1917] died 75 years earlier. The Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, just not Auguste Rodin's lifetime.









199315 OF 15 Posthumous Forgeries

On page 182, of the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation's published 2001 Rodin, A Magnificent Obsession catalogue, the above  Bust of Mrs. Russell is listed as 1888, Musee Rodin cast II in 1993, Bronze, George Rudier, 13 3/4 x 10 x 10 1/4 in. (34.9 x 25.4 x 26 cm), Signed and numbered A. Rodin No. II and inscribed Georges Rudier Fondeur Paris, Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Collection, promised gift to the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation, 1611. [FN 49]

Additionally, on page 1386 in the Seventh Edition of Black’s Law Dictionary, signature is defined as: “a person’s name or mark written by that person or at the person’s direction.”[FN 50]

In 1993, much less in 1963 to 1992 with the prior fourteen forgeries, Auguste Rodin could not have applied his name or mark and certainly not at his direction. The dead don’t give directions.

Regardless, in 1993, Auguste Rodin [d 1917] died 76 years earlier. The Rodin, Portraits of a Lifetime, just not Auguste Rodin's lifetime.


TEXAS A&M'S AGGIE CODE OF HONOR:
"For many years Aggies have followed a Code of Honor, which is stated in this very simple verse: An Aggie does not lie, cheat or steal or tolerate those who do. The Aggie Code of Honor is an effort to unify the aims of all Texas A&aM men and women toward a high code of ethics and personal dignity. For most, living under this code will be no problem, as it asks nothing of a person that is beyond reason. It only calls for honesty and integrity, characteristics that Aggies have always exemplified. The Aggie Code of Honor functions as a symbol to all Aggies, promoting understanding and loyalty to truth and confidence in each other."[FN 51]

PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES IN ART MUSEUMS
On page 32, Appendix D of the June 2009 Association of Art Museum Director’s Professional Practices in Art Museums booklet, it is written that the: “misleading marketing of reproductions, has created such widespread confusion as to require clarification in order to maintain professional standards. - When producing and/or selling reproductions, museums must clearly indicate, through the use of integral markings on the objects, as well as signs, labels, and advertising, that these items are reproductions."[FN 52] The AAMD requires of their members that:
  • “When producing and/or selling reproductions - signatures, edition numbers, and/or foundry marks on sculpture must not appear on the reproduction.,
  • "...the fact that they are reproductions should be clearly indicated on the object,  [and]
  • "When advertising reproductions, museums should not use language implying that there is any identity of quality between the copy and the original or lead the potential buyer to believe that by purchasing any such reproductions, he or she is acquiring an original work of art.”[FN 53]

Once again, by the Musee Rodin avoiding sending the hypothetical original plasters to the foundry, they have willingly given up the authentic original surface details made by the working fingers of Auguste Rodin himself or that Auguste Rodin approved through his collaboration with his “sculpteur reproducteur habituel”[FN 54] Henri Lebosse and other assistants. Each time the surface of one of these subjects is approximated by the necessary crude handling of the materials used in the reproduction processes, there is visible change. The resulting pieces may be interesting to look at, but it is an absurdity to pretend they are just the way Rodin would have wanted and intended for them to appear.

Additionally to be obvious, it is the 21st-century, not the "twentieth-century" and the pressing tongue-in-check question that should be on everyone's mind: When in the near future will a dead Auguste Rodin stop coming out with new sculpture? 

LAW, ETHICS AND THE VISUAL ARTS
Once again, on pages 816-817 of Kluwer Law International’s published 1998 Law, Ethics and the Visual Arts, Third Edition by John Henry Merryman and Albert E. Elsen, the authors wrote about “Counterfeit Art.” Under the subtitle “Truth,” the authors wrote: “The most serious harm that good counterfeits do is to confuse and misdirect the search for valid learning.  The counterfeit  objects falsifies history and misdirects inquiry.”[FN 55]

Additionally, under the subtitle “Resource Allocation,” the authors wrote: “Museum and art historical resources are always limited. What gets acquired, displayed, conserved and studied is the result of a continuous process of triage, in which some objects can be favoured only at the expenses of others. Counterfeit objects distort the process.”[FN 56]

Finally, under the subtitle “Fraud,” the authors wrote: “There remains the most obvious harm of all: counterfeit cultural objects are instruments of fraud. Most are created in order to deceive and defraud, but even “innocent” counterfeits can, and often will, be so used. The same considerations of justice and social order that make deliberate fraud of other kinds criminal apply equally to fraud through the medium of counterfeit art…”[FN 57]

CONCLUSION 
What needs to be accomplished is the full and honest disclosure of all reproductions as -reproductions- by all museums, auction houses and art dealers. If the University of Texas A&M, its Stark Galleries and the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation will give full  and honest  disclosure for all reproductions as reproductions, it would allow museum patrons informed consent on whether they wish to attend an exhibition of reproductions, much less forgeries. 

But, if these objects are not reproductions by definition and law but forgeries, then serious consequences of law may come into play for those who chose to misrepresent these forgeries for monetary consideration including but not limited to: admission fees, "giving to the arts,"[FN 58] city-state-federal grants, corporate sponsorships, tax write-offs and outright sales.

The reputations and legacy of living and past artists, present and future museum art patrons and the art-buying public deserve the re-establishment of the obvious - that the living presence and participation of the artist to once again be required, as it always should have been, to create the piece of art attributable to the artist if indeed it is attributed to them, much less purported to have been signed by them. 


FAIR USE:
Under U.S. Copyright Law "Section 107 contains a list of the various purposes for which the reproduction of a particular work may be considered fair, such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Section 107 also sets out four factors to be considered in determining whether or not a particular use is fair. [one of which is:] The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes."

http://www.copyright.gov/fls/fl102.html



FOOTNOTES:
1. Copyright © 1999, By West Group, ISBN 0-314-22864-0



3. Copyright © 1999, By West Group, ISBN 0-314-22864-0




7. [2 pages] Written and Distributed by the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation Director Judith Sobol

8. Publisher: Collins; 2 edition (January 15, 1992), ISBN-10: 0064610128, ISBN-13: 978-0064610124


10. http://www.copyright.gov/title17/92chap1.html#101

11. Ibid

12. http://www.copyright.gov/title17/92chap1.html#106a 

13. Publisher: National Gallery of Art,Washington (October 26, 1981), ISBN-10: 0894680005, ISBN-13: 978-0894680007

14. Publisher: Yale University Press; First Edition edition (October 27, 1993), ISBN-10: 0300054009, ISBN-13: 978-0300054002

15. [2 pages] Written and Distributed by the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation Director Judith Sobol


17. Publisher: National Gallery of Art,Washington (October 26, 1981), ISBN-10: 0894680005, ISBN-13: 978-0894680007

18. Musee Rodin: 978-2-9014-2892-3 © Musee Rodin, Paris 2007, 19, boulevard des Invalides, 75007 Paris

19. Ibid

20. Publisher: Merrell; First Edition edition (October 2001), ISBN-10: 1858941431, ISBN-13: 978-1858941431

21. Musee Rodin: 978-2-9014-2892-3 © Musee Rodin, Paris 2007, 19, boulevard des Invalides, 75007 Paris

22. Musee Rodin: 978-2-9014-2892-3 © Musee Rodin, Paris 2007, 19, boulevard des Invalides, 75007 Paris

23. Publisher: Merrell; First Edition edition (October 2001), ISBN-10: 1858941431, ISBN-13: 978-1858941431

24. Publisher: Merrell; First Edition edition (October 2001), ISBN-10: 1858941431, ISBN-13: 978-1858941431

25. Musee Rodin: 978-2-9014-2892-3 © Musee Rodin, Paris 2007, 19, boulevard des Invalides, 75007 Paris

26. Publisher: Merrell; First Edition edition (October 2001), ISBN-10: 1858941431, ISBN-13: 978-1858941431

27. Musee Rodin: 978-2-9014-2892-3 © Musee Rodin, Paris 2007, 19, boulevard des Invalides, 75007 Paris

28. Ibid


30. Publisher: Merrell; First Edition edition (October 2001), ISBN-10: 1858941431, ISBN-13: 978-1858941431

31. Musee Rodin: 978-2-9014-2892-3 © Musee Rodin, Paris 2007, 19, boulevard des Invalides, 75007 Paris

32. Publisher: Merrell; First Edition edition (October 2001), ISBN-10: 1858941431, ISBN-13: 978-1858941431

33. Musee Rodin: 978-2-9014-2892-3 © Musee Rodin, Paris 2007, 19, boulevard des Invalides, 75007 Paris

34. Publisher: Merrell; First Edition edition (October 2001), ISBN-10: 1858941431, ISBN-13: 978-1858941431

35. Musee Rodin: 978-2-9014-2892-3 © Musee Rodin, Paris 2007, 19, boulevard des Invalides, 75007 Paris

36. Publisher: Merrell; First Edition edition (October 2001), ISBN-10: 1858941431, ISBN-13: 978-1858941431

37. Musee Rodin: 978-2-9014-2892-3 © Musee Rodin, Paris 2007, 19, boulevard des Invalides, 75007 Paris

38. Publisher: Merrell; First Edition edition (October 2001), ISBN-10: 1858941431, ISBN-13: 978-1858941431

39. Musee Rodin: 978-2-9014-2892-3 © Musee Rodin, Paris 2007, 19, boulevard des Invalides, 75007 Paris

40. Publisher: Merrell; First Edition edition (October 2001), ISBN-10: 1858941431, ISBN-13: 978-1858941431

41. Musee Rodin: 978-2-9014-2892-3 © Musee Rodin, Paris 2007, 19, boulevard des Invalides, 75007 Paris

42. Publisher: Merrell; First Edition edition (October 2001), ISBN-10: 1858941431, ISBN-13: 978-1858941431

43. Musee Rodin: 978-2-9014-2892-3 © Musee Rodin, Paris 2007, 19, boulevard des Invalides, 75007 Paris

44. https://aamd.org/sites/default/files/document/2011ProfessionalPracitiesinArtMuseums.pdf

45. Publisher: Merrell; First Edition edition (October 2001), ISBN-10: 1858941431, ISBN-13: 978-1858941431

46. Musee Rodin: 978-2-9014-2892-3 © Musee Rodin, Paris 2007, 19, boulevard des Invalides, 75007 Paris

47. Publisher: Merrell; First Edition edition (October 2001), ISBN-10: 1858941431, ISBN-13: 978-1858941431

48. Musee Rodin: 978-2-9014-2892-3 © Musee Rodin, Paris 2007, 19, boulevard des Invalides, 75007 Paris

49. Publisher: Merrell; First Edition edition (October 2001), ISBN-10: 1858941431, ISBN-13: 978-1858941431

50. Musee Rodin: 978-2-9014-2892-3 © Musee Rodin, Paris 2007, 19, boulevard des Invalides, 75007 Paris



53. Ibid

54. Publisher: National Gallery of Art,Washington (October 26, 1981), ISBN-10: 0894680005, ISBN-13: 978-0894680007

55. © Kluwer Law International 1998, ISBN: 90-411-0697-9 

56. Ibid 

57. Ibid








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