Friday, July 5, 2013

Posthumous Impressions from Reworked and Altered Plates can -NEVER- be etchings, much less by Goya, in a so-called "Disasters of War" exhibition at the University of California Santa Barbara

NOTE: Footnotes enclosed as: [FN ]

UPDATED: July 12, 2013 with British Museum links for JPGs




Plate 71 from Francisco Goya’s “Disasters of War” series. USD [a.k.a. University of San-Diego]
http://www.utsandiego.com/photos/2012/feb/06/534482/
POSTHUMOUS FORGERY FROM A REWORKED AND ALTERED PLATE







Contra el bien general (Against the common good), etching, Print made by Francisco Goya, 1812-1820, Plate 71: demon with bat's wing ears sitting on chair writing in volume, with imploring figures below to right; from a bound album of working proofs, presented by the artist to Ceán Bermúdez. 1812-20, Numbered on plate. Titled by the artist in pencil within platemark, below image, Height: 176 millimetre, Width: 216 millimetres
http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=1396068&partId=1&searchText=Goya%2c+1812-1820%2c+Plate+71&page=1
AUTHENTIC LIFETIME GOYA ETCHING



The University of San Diego's touring Goya: Disasters of War exhibition, opening on July 13 - September 22, 2013 at the University of California Santa Barbara's Art, Design & Architecture Museum, is a -fraud-.

On page 670 of the Seventh Edition of Black's Law Dictionary, -fraud- is defined as: "A knowing misrepresentation of the truth or concealment of a material fact to induce another to act to his or her detriment."[FN 1]

The University of California Santa Barbara's Art, Design & Architecture Museum  July 13 - September 22, 2013 Goya: Disasters of War exhibition is "a knowing misrepresentation of the truth or concealment of a material fact to induce another to act to his or her detriment"  that contains 80 non-disclosed posthumous -forgeries,  impressed in 1863 or later by the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando [Madrid, Spain] from posthumously  reworked and altered etching plates. 

On page  1186 of the Seventh Edition of Black's Law Dictionary, -posthumous- is defined as: "Occurring  or existing after death."[FN 2]

Francisco de Goya y Lucientes died in 1828. In 1863, when the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando [Madrid, Spain]  posthumously reworked and altered Francisco de Goya y Lucientes Disasters of War etching plates and subsequently printed the first of some 80,000 non-disclosed posthumous forgeries, he was some 35 years dead.

On page 661 of the Seventh Edition of Black's Law Dictionary, -forgery- is defined as: "The act of fraudulently making a false document or altering a real one to be used as if genuine."[FN 3]

The dead don't etch.

This ordinary sense perspective is confirmed in A GUIDE TO THE COLLECTING AND CARE OF ORIGINAL PRINTS sponsored by the The Print Council of America and authored by Carl Zigrosser and Christa M. Gaehde, where the authors wrote: "An original print is a work of art, the general requirements of which are: a. The artist alone has created the master image in or upon the plate, stone, wood block or other material, for the purpose of creating the print. b. The print is made from the said material, by the artist or pursuant to his directions. c. The finished print is approved by the artist."[FN 4]

Additionally, this is legally supported by U.S. Customs May 2006 An Informed Compliance Publication titled Works of Art, Collector`s Pieces Antiques, and Other Cultural Property, which states: "The expression original engravings, prints and lithographs means impressions produced directly, in black and white or in color, of one or of several plates wholly executed by hand by the artist, irrespective of the process or of the material employed by him, but  excluding any mechanical  or  photomechanical  process."[FN 5]  

In other words, after Francisco de Goya y Lucientes' death in 1828, a dead Goya could not have: 1) created the master image in 1863, 2) been pursuant to his directions in 1863 or 3) been approved by the artist in 1863. 

The dead don’t create, pursue or approve.

On page  137 of the Seventh Edition of Black's Law Dictionary, -bait and switch- is defined as: "Most states prohibit the bait and switch when the original product is not actually available as advertised."[FN 6]

That -fraud- is never more evident when one compares the University of California Santa Barbara's "Opening Reception: July 12" -bait-: 

  • "From 1810-1820 Spanish artist Francisco Goya (1746-1828) made an extraordinary body of work, a suite of 80 prints that lay bare, in darkly comic, frightening and visceral ways, the harrowing events that took place during and after the Peninsular War between Spain and France.  Using allegory and striking images coupled with text, Goya's prints were one of first works of art to fully convey the brutal inhumanity of war."[FN 7] 

versus the University of California Santa Barbara's July 2, 2013 Press Release -switch-: 

  • "Goya completed the eighty etchings in the series from 1810 to 1823, in different printing techniques including engraving and drypoint. While most of the prints were made during the Napoleonic occupation of Spain and the subsequent decade, the images were published thirty years after Goya’'s death, likely because of their controversial anti-war subjects."[FN 8]

Both of these statements are overtly misleading, including but not limited to, the following reasons: 1) despite the statement that they were "published thirty years after Goya's death," Goya actually printed some 485 authentic lifetime Disasters of War etchings, from his original etching plates, none of which are in this exhibition, 2) anything posthumous "published" -at best- would be posthumous impressions and -not- original works of visual art ie., "etchings" and 3) the posthumous reworking and altering of Goya's lifetime etching plates with aquatint, lines and titles forever eliminates any attribution of the subsequent printed forgeries to dead Francisco de Goya y Lucientes.

Yet, in complete contradiction to their so-called Goya: Disasters of War exhibition, the University Art Museum a.k.a. Art, Design & Architecture Museum at the University of California, Santa Barbara's -Mission- is: "to serve as a unique educational resource for the various audiences of the university and the community through the collection, preservation, and interpretation of works of art, architecture, and design. By presenting innovative, challenging, and culturally diverse exhibitions, producing catalogues and other publications, and organizing interdisciplinary programs on issues of historical, social and cultural relevance, the UAM seeks to promote scholarship, inspire creative excellence, and deepen an understanding of the  visual arts produced by the world’s peoples, past and present."[FN 9]

The University of California Santa Barbara and their Art, Design & Architecture Museum do not practice what the preach.


Therefore, to fill this ethical vacuum created by the University of California, Santa Barbara, their Art, Design & Architecture Museum and the University of San Diego this monograph will "serve as a unique educational resource for the various audiences of the university and community - to promote scholarship, inspire creative excellence, and deepen an understanding of the visual arts produced by the world's people, past and present" by documenting the following and more
  1. the University of San-Diego's representation versus their disclosure, 
  2. Goya plates were posthumously altered with aquatint, 
  3. Goya plates were posthumously altered with lines, 
  4. Goya plates were posthumously altered with titles, 
  5. 80,000 or more of never ending editions,  
  6. Ethics that are preached not practiced,
  7. Urban Legend/Myth Defined,
  8. Professional Practices in Art Museums,
  9. The Faun, Posthumous Forgery,
  10. Victoria Sancho Lobis, new curator at Art Institute of Chicago,
  11. Art Institute of Chicago's flood of posthumous forgeries,
  12. Law, Ethics and the Visual Arts, and
  13. Conclusion




UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGO'S REPRESENTATION
In the University of San-Diego’s “Goya’s Disasters of War: A Legacy in Print Thursday, February 9, 2012 – Sunday, May 27, 2012” press release, it made the -representation- that: “Between 1810 and 1820 Spanish artist Francisco de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828) created the Disasters of War series, a set of 80 prints created through the etching and aquatint processes.”[FN 10]

On page 1303 of the Seventh Edition of Black’s Law Dictionary, -representation- is defined as: “A presentation of fact - either by words or by conduct - made to induce someone to act, esp to enter into a contract.”[FN 11]

UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGO'S DISCLOSURE
Yet, in complete contradiction to its’ initial -representation-, the University of San-Diego made the following -disclosure-: “Often arresting and horrific, the subjects for these prints arose from Goya’s direct encounter with the effects of the Peninsular War in Spain. Due to the disturbing nature of these prints and their tacit challenge to authority, the series was not published until 1863, thirty-five years after the artist’s death.”[FN 12]

On page 476 of the Seventh Edition of Black’s Law Dictionary, -disclosure- is defined as: “The act or process of making known something that was previously unknown.”[FN 13]

In other words, a dead Goya has never seen the so-called “prints” that University of San-Diego is so eager to give him credit for.

A LEGACY IN PRINT
Then to go from the ridiculous to the sublime,  the University of San-Diego gave these non-disclosed posthumous [after 1863] reworked and altered forgeries, the exhibition titled: Goya’s Disasters of War: a Legacy in Print.


On page 901 of the Seventh Edition of Black’s Law Dictionary, -legacy- is defined as: “a gift by will, esp. of personal property.”[FN 14]


Despite Goya’s legacy ending upon his death in 1828, the University of San-Diego has chosen to misrepresent these non-disclosed posthumous [after 1863] forgeries, falsely attributed to a dead Goya [d 1828], from posthumously reworked and altered plates as a: “landmark in the history of printmaking”[FN 8] and hype it as “the cornerstone of USD’s permanent collection.”[FN 15]

PRINTS REFLECT THE IDEAS - OF THEIR TIME
“More than any other artistic medium, prints reflect the ideas and innovations of their time,”[FN 16] states the University of San-Diego.

In  this case, in 1863, some 35 or more years after Francisco de Goya y Lucientes' death in 1828, these non-disclosed forgeries reflect the arrogance of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando [Madrid, Spain] who self-serving decide to posthumously alter and rework, with aquatint, lines and titles, Goya's lifetime etching plates to fit the sensibilities of the mid-19th-century printing of those resulting forgeries.

The Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando [Madrid, Spain] had no shame.


In a Union Tribune published March 27, 2012 "Goya Purist Takes on USD exhibit, 'the dead don't etch' he says" article by John Wilkens, instead of embracing the facts surrounding this uncomfortable truth, the University of San Diego's curator of USD's print collection Victoria Sancho Lobis is quoted stating: 

  • “The consensus is that these prints represent the realization of the artist’s intentions,” said Lobis, who has degrees from Yale, Williams College and Columbia University. Any alterations to the plates were minor, she said, and don’t change Goya’s vision, which has been influencing other artists with its power and intimacy for two centuries."[FN 17]

On page 1382 of the Seventh Edition of Black's Law Dictionary, -shill- is defined as: "A person who poses as an innocent bystander at a confidence game but actually serves a decoy for the perpetrators of a scheme."






http://www.theusdvista.com/polopoly_fs/1.2773887!/image/1329460163.jpg
POSTHUMOUS FORGERY FROM A REWORKED AND ALTERED PLATE




Las resultas (The consequences), etching, Print made by Francisco Goya, 1812-1820, Plate 72: bat-like creature (vampire?) sucking at chest of corpse, others seen swooping in behind; from a bound album of working proofs, presented by the artist to Ceán Bermúdez. 1812-20, Numbered on plate. Titled by the artist in pencil within platemark, below image, Height: 175 millimetre, Width: 216 millimetres
http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=1334059&partId=1&searchText=Goya%2c+1812-1820%2c+Plate+72&page=1
AUTHENTIC LIFETIME GOYA ETCHING



PLATES POSTHUMOUSLY ALTERED WITH AQUATINT
This posthumous application of aquatint to Goya's etching plates is confirmed, aside from one's own eyes, by following two sources:


1. In The Disasters of War by Francisco Goya y Lucientes catalogue published in 1967 by Dover Publications, on page 1 of the "Introduction to the Dover Edition," Harvard University Library Department of Graphic Arts' Philip Hofer wrote: "Then a year later, in 1863, the Academy issued the prints publicly, with a newly engraved title page, and printed preface, in eight paper-covered, numbered parts, with some retouching to the aquatint backgrounds and even to Goya’s etching itself!”[FN 18]

2. This posthumous forging of Goya etching plates with aquatint is further confirmed by Janis A. Tomlinson in her 1992 Goya In the Twilight of Enlightenment catalogue published by Yale University Press. After Goya's "Disasters of War" etching plates were acquired by the Academy of Fine Art of San Fernando in 1862, the author writes: "To make the first edition of the series most of the plates were altered, completing the lines framing the scenes, adding scratches, and even brunienclo areas of aquatint (7) and tinkering with drypoint (1, 77), chisel (38) or etching (43, 57). Besides printing was performed following the style of the time by the effects of entrapado, a procedure which passes a muslin cloth over the plate and inked on the surface leaving a certain amount of ink that produces a very soft toned overall. The result was far from the force and clarity that can be seen in the many state tests are preserved."[FN 19]








http://www.theusdvista.com/polopoly_fs/1.2773886!/image/144541971.jpg 
POSTHUMOUS FORGERY FROM A REWORKED AND ALTERED PLATE



Grande hazaña! Con muertos! (An heroic feat! With dead men!), etching, lavis and drypoint, Print made by Francisco Goya, 1812-1820, Plate 39: three corpses bound to tree stump, all castrated; one with arms amputated and decapitated, the head impaled on a branch; from a bound album of working proofs, presented by the artist to Ceán Bermúdez. 1812-20, Signed and numbered on plate. Titled by the artist in pencil within platemark, below image, Height: 155 millimetre, Width: 204 millimetres 
http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=1333636&partId=1&searchText=goya+Plate+39&page=1 
AUTHENTIC LIFETIME GOYA ETCHING



PLATES POSTHUMOUSLY ALTERED WITH LINES
The posthumous altering of lines to Goya's etching plates, aside from one's own eyes, is confirmed by these two sources:


1. Once again, in Janis A. Tomlinson's 1992 Goya In the Twilight of  Enlightenment catalogue published by Yale University Press. After Goya's "Disasters of War" etching plates were acquired by the Academy of Fine Art of San Fernando in 1862, the author writes: "To make the first edition of the series most of the plates were altered, completing the lines framing the scenes, adding scratches, and even brunienclo areas of aquatint (7) and tinkering with drypoint (1, 77), chisel (38) or etching (43, 57). Besides printing was performed following the style of the time by the effects of entrapado, a procedure which passes a muslin cloth over the plate and inked on the surface leaving a certain amount of ink that produces a very soft toned overall. The result was far from the force and clarity that can be seen in the many state tests are preserved."[FN 20] 

2. In "The World Printmakers Great Printmakers Series Francisco de Goya" essay by Mike Booth, these contentious issues of authenticity, with the posthumous reworking and alteration of Goya's original "Disasters of War" etching plates, were confirmed. In part, the author wrote: "Surprisingly enough,  the plates were quite extensively retouched for the first edition, something that we look upon today as anathema. Framing lines were completed around the images, scratches were burnished out and some areas of aquatint, drypoint and direct acid bite were even added."[FN 21]








http://www.theusdvista.com/polopoly_fs/1.2773889!/image/1918753395.jpg 
POSTHUMOUS FORGERY FROM A REWORKED AND ALTERED PLATE




Esto es peor (This is worse) , etching, lavis and drypoint, Print made by Francisco Goya, 1812-1820, Plate 37: male corpse impaled on tree stump, soldiers dragging and hacking at corpses beyond; from a bound album of working proofs, presented by the artist to Ceán Bermúdez. 1812-20, Signed and numbered on plate. Titled by the artist in pencil within platemark, below image, Height: 155 millimetre, Width: 205 millimetres 
http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/search_object_details.aspx?objectid=1333729&partid=1&searchText=plate+37+goya&fromADBC=ad&toADBC=ad&numpages=10&images=on&orig=%2fresearch%2fsearch_the_collection_database.aspx&currentPage=1
AUTHENTIC LIFETIME GOYA ETCHING


POSTHUMOUSLY FORGED WITH TITLES
In a GOYA: CHRONICLER OF ALL WARS catalogue by Juan Bordes, for a May 15-September 13,  2009 The Disasters and War Photography exhibition at the CAAM-Calcografia Nacional, the author wrote: "On the cover of one of the three complete copies of this series printed by Goya himself, reads the title "Fatales consecuencias de la sangrienta guerra en España con Bonaparte Y otros caprichos enfáticos en 85 estampas. Inventadas, dibujadas y grabadas por el pintor original D. Francisco de Goya y Lucientes" (Fatal Consequences of the Bloody War in Spain with Bonaparte and Other Emphatic Caprices in 85 prints. Invented, drawn and etched by the original painter Don Francisco de Goya y Lucientes). In Madrid, such is the title of this one and only first copy, which was set and bound for Agustín Ceán Bermúdez, who subsequently corrected the inscriptions and this cover."[FN 22]

In other words, the very title that Francisco Goya y Lucientes gave for his own 80 original hand-printed etchings was reworked and altered to "Los Desastres de la Guerra" a.k.a. The Disasters of War, just like his original etching plates were reworked and altered by Real Academia de Bellas Artes de-San Fernando for the subsequent editions of forgeries after 1863.




This posthumous skewing is additionally confirmed on page 1 of The Disasters of War by Francisco Goya y Lucientes catalogue published in 1967 by Dover Publications. In the "Introduction to the Dover Edition," Harvard University Library Department of Graphic Arts' Philip Hofer wrote: "Los Desastres de la guerra (The Disasters of War). First published in 1863, thirty-five years after the artist’s death, it normally consist of eighty aquatint plates, roughly six by eight inches oblong format, with short but vivid captions perhaps composed by Goya’s learned friend, Cean Bermudex from the artist’s notes. The actual execution of the captions is by still another hand.”[FN 23]

80,000 OR MORE OF NEVER ENDING EDITIONS
In the "Medium for the Message: Printmaking and the Disasters of War" essay by Grinnell College's Roxanne Young and Annaliese Beaman, the authors wrote: "Large print editions can damage copper plates, especially plates with raised burrs from engraving processes. Sometimes these copper plates can be coated with a layer of steel alloy that makes them stronger and more resilient to multiple printings for large editions. This is called “steel-facing.” The Disasters of War plates were steel-faced after a large edition was printed in 1863. This steel- facing helped make it possible to publish later, smaller, editions of the Disasters of War without further damaging these valuable plates."[FN 24]

Harris Shank Fine Prints notes on their website that "the First Edition of Los Desastres de la Guerra was published posthumously, in 1863, and seven editions were made in all."[FN 25]

Five of those seven editions are chronicled on Wikipedia, where it is written: "The 1863 edition had 500 impressions, and editions followed in 1892 (100) before which the plates were probably steel-faced to prevent further wear, 1903 (100), 1906 (275), and 1937. Spaightwood Galleries accessed October 18, 2009."[FN 26]

Unfortunately, the term "edition" is being used, as an euphemism for mass-produced non-disclosed forgeries from reworked and altered plates.

This perspective seems to be supported on the www.almendron.com website, where there are now ten editions of the "Disasters of War" listed: 
  • "FIRST EDITION 1864 (Laurentian Potenciano strike the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando),
  • SECOND EDITION October 1875*,
  • THIRD EDITION 1891*,
  • FOURTH EDITION 1902*,
  • FIFTH EDITION 1904*,
  • SIXTH EDITION 1916*,
  • SEVENTH EDITION 1923*,
  • EIGHTH EDITION 1930*,
  • NINTH EDITION 1937 (Rupérez in the National Engraving for the Ministry of Public Instruction Aries),
  • and TENTH EDITION 1970 (*Stamped on the Chalcography Real (or National) to the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando.)."[FN 27]



    In 1828, Francisco de Goya y Lucientes suffered a stroke and died in Bordeaux, France and was interred at the cemetary of the Chartreuse of Bordeaux [photo above left]. In 1919, Francisco de Goya y Lucientes' remains were transferred some 344 miles south to the Royal Chapel of St. Anthony of La Florida in Madrid, Spain [photo on right].

    U.S. COPYRIGHT LAW
    Under U.S. Copyright Law § 101. Definitions, a -work of visual art- is defined as: "a painting, drawing, print or sculpture, existing in a single copy, in a limited edition of 200 copies or fewer that are signed and consecutively numbered by the author, or, in the case of a sculpture, in multiple cast, carved, or fabricated sculptures of 200 or fewer that are consecutively numbered by the author and bear the signature or other identifying mark of the author."[FN 28]

    Aside, a dead Francisco de Goya y Lucientes was some 344 miles north in Bordeaux, France under a very heavy grave marker [above photo left], he could not have obviously created, much less signed and consecutively numbered any edition in Madrid, Spain. Therefore, under U.S. Copyright Law the subsequent non-disclosed posthumous reworked and altered forgeries would -not- be considered works of visual art, much less limited.

    The same argument can be made after 1919, when Francisco de Goya y Lucientes' remains were transferred to the Royal Chapel of St. Anthony of La Florida in Madrid, Spain and interred under another very heavy grave marker [above photo right]. Anyone who would argue otherwise, would be  -gravely- undermining their credibility.

    To paraphase, the former Musee Rodin curator Monique Laurent, -editions- are "modern methods, linked with the notion of rarity and speculation in art"[FN 29] or in this case non-disclosed posthumous forgeries from reworked and altered plates.

    The dead don't number.

    ETHICS THAT ARE PREACHED NOT PRACTICED
    The University of San Diego’s -Mission- states as a Roman Catholic institution, it is: “committed to advancing academic excellence, expanding liberal and professional knowledge, creating a diverse and inclusive community, and preparing leaders dedicated to ethical conduct and compassionate service.”[FN 30]

    Yet, in response to this scholar's pronouncement that "the dead don't etch" in the Union Tribune published on March 27, 2012, Goya Purist Takes on USD exhibit, 'The dead don't etch' he says" article by John Wilkens, the reporter wrote: "Victoria Sancho Lobis, curator of USD's print collection, said Arseneau is taking "an extreme position that goes against the collective wisdom and understanding" of art historians and museum scholars worldwide."

    Since when was it extreme to state the obvious?

    Additionally, the University of San Diego states it is: “an academic institution based upon a foundation of learning and intellectual honesty. The University is a community of scholars, predicated on the principles of scholastic integrity. Every member of our community is expected to abide by ethical standards, in personal conduct as well as all interactions with other members of the community. In keeping with this commitment, the University of San Diego Honor Code is based upon the five fundamental values established by the National Center for Academic Integrity (CAI): honesty, responsibility, trust, fairness, and respect.”[FN 31].

    Yet, in Alice in Wonderland response to this scholar's pronouncement that "the dead don't etch" in the Union Tribune published on March 27, 2012, Goya Purist Takes on USD exhibit, 'The dead don't etch' he says" article by John Wilkens, the reporter quoted Malcolm Warner, executive director at the Laguna Art Museum and the former curator of prints at the San Diego Museum of Art stating“For the most part, the only prints available from this incredible achievement of his in printmaking are those that were made after his death.”

    Since when do the dead have "incredible achievements?" 

    Also, the University of San-Diego states: “Honesty is the foundation of any successful learning community. Academic dishonesty will not be tolerated by faculty or student. Cheating, plagiarism, falsification, forgery, theft, and other dishonest acts constitute an offense to the integrity of scholarship at USD and represent a threat to the quality of learning. Honesty must be applied to all aspects of everyday life, whether in the classroom or out.”[FN 32]

    Yet, in a ridiculous to the sublime response to this scholar's pronouncement that "the dead don't etch" in the Union Tribune published on March 27, 2012, Goya Purist Takes on USD exhibit, 'The dead don't etch' he says" article by John Wilkens, the reporter wrote: "There is no direct mention in the USD gallery that the Goya prints were done posthumously, although a handout sheet about the exhibit does list the artist’s date of death and the date the prints were made. - 'It’s not a big issue,' Lobis said. 'It’s common knowledge that the prints were made after Goya died, and why. That’s part of what makes them special.'"

    So, with no disclosure of being posthumous, much less being forgeries from posthumously reworked and altered plates, the USD curator Victoria Sancho Lobis states "it's not a big issue"  because "that's part of what makes them special."


    What are we to think of USD curator Victoria Sancho Lobis who thinks the living presence of the artist is not required to create the art, attributed to them, if in fact it is attributed to them, much less created by them?


    Therefore, since Francisco de Goya y Lucientes died in 1828 and his original lifetime etching plates were posthumously reworked and altered with some 80,000 non-disclosed forgeries cranked-out between 1863 to the late 20th-century and beyond, would the misrepresentation by University of San-Diego of such non-disclosed posthumous forgeries from reworked and altered plates as Goya’s Disasters of War: A Legacy in Print exhibition be considered -academic dishonesty-?



    URBAN LEGEND/MYTH DEFINED
    An -Urban Legend/Myth-, referencing  University of Utah professor emeritus of English Jan Harold Brunvand’s Too Good to Be True: The Colossal Book of Urban Legends[FN 33] book,  is defined on Wikipedia's website as: “a form of modern folklore consisting of stories that may or may not have been believed by their tellers to be true. As with all folklore and mythology, the designation suggests nothing about the story's veracity, but merely that it is in circulation, exhibits variation over time, and carries some significance that motivates the community in preserving and propagating it.”[FN 34]

    Goya's "Con razon o sin ella"
    http://laprensa-sandiego.org/archieve/december14/GOYA.HTM 
    POSTHUMOUS FORGERY FROM A REWORKED AND ALTERED PLATE   




    Con raizon o sin ella (Rightly or wrongly), etching, Print made by Francisco Goya, 1812-1820, Plate 2: two Spanish men, one with knife one with bayonet, attacking soldiers; from a bound album of working proofs, presented by the artist to Ceán Bermúdez. 1812-20, Numbered on plate. Titled by the artist in pencil within platemark, below image, Height: 155 millimetre, Width: 216 millimetres
    http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/search_object_image.aspx?objectId=1396504&partId=1&searchText=plate+2+goya&fromADBC=ad&toADBC=ad&orig=%2fresearch%2fsearch_the_collection_database.aspx&images=on&numPages=10&currentPage=1&asset_id=37946
    AUTHENTIC LIFETIME GOYA ETCHING 



    2001 RARE COLLECTION OF PRINTS GIVEN TO USD
    The -Urban Legend/Myth-, for these non-disclosed posthumous forgeries, from posthumously reworked and altered plates, donated  in 2001 to the University of San-Diego, began in earnest when the La Prensa San Diego weekly and bilingual [English/Spanish] newspaper published a December 14, 2001 “Rare Collection of Goya Prints Given to USD” article [with no byline] that seemed to be more like a published press release. In part, it stated: 
    • “Carlsbad businessman Robert Hoehn and his wife, Karen, have given a set of rare prints by Francisco Goya to the University of San Diego. The collection goes on display Dec. 14 and 15 in the university's new Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice. It includes 80 original prints comprising Goya's Disasters of War, a series of etchings and engravings composed by the renowned Spanish artist during the Napoleonic occupation of Spain in the early 19th century.”[FN 35]
    Then in a clear attempt to perpetuate this -Urban Legend/Myth- so it would seem these non-disclosed posthumous forgeries, from posthumously reworked and altered plates, “carries some significance that motivates the community in preserving and propagating it”[FN 36], this article/press release stated:
    • “’We are deeply indebted to Robert and Karen Hoehn for the extraordinary generosity of their gift," said USD President Alice B. Hayes. "Their vision for the university's collection of prints is as carefully crafted as it is ambitious.’ The Hoehns are longtime patrons of the arts in San Diego and Mr. Hoehn, President of the Hoehn Co., is a member of the USD Board of Trustees. The couple already was thinking about assembling a collection of prints for USD when philanthropist Joan B. Kroc gave the university $25 million in 1998 for the Institute for Peace and Justice.”[FN 37] 









    SERIES WAS NOT PUBLISHED UNTIL 1863
    Now, eleven years later  in 2012 this -carefully crafted- "vision of the university's collection of prints"  continues to perpetuate the -Urban Legend/Myth- representation that  “Between 1810 and 1820 Spanish artist Francisco de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828) created the Disasters of War series, a set of 80 prints created through the etching and aquatint processes,”[FN 38] despite the disclosure  by University of San-Diego for their 2012  Goya’s Disasters of War: A Legacy in Print exhibition that "the series was not published until 1863, thirty-five years after the artist’s death.”[FN 39]

    Rhetorically, whether the University of San-Diego's left hand knows what the right hand is doing, it is clear it wasn't by a dead Goya's left or right hand.

    AAMD STATEMENT OF MISSION
    The Association of Art Museum Directors’ “Statement of Mission,” as adopted in June 1996, in part, states: “The purpose of the Association of Art Museum Directors is to aid its members in establishing and maintaining the highest professional standards for themselves and the museums they represent.”[FN 40]

    PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES IN ART MUSEUMS
    On page 31 of the 2001 Association of Art Museum Director’s Professional Practices in Art Museums booklet, it is written that the: “misleading marketing of reproductions, has created such widespread confusion as to require clarification in order to maintain professional standards. - When producing and/or selling reproductions, museums must clearly indicate, through the use of integral markings on the objects, as well as signs, labels, and advertising, that these items are reproductions."[FN 41] The AAMD requires of their members that:
    1. “When producing and/or selling reproductions - signatures, edition numbers, and/or foundry marks on sculpture must not appear on the reproduction.,
    2. "...the fact that they are reproductions should be clearly indicated on the object,  [and]
    3. "When advertising reproductions, museums should not use language implying that there is any identity of quality between the copy and the original or lead the potential buyer to believe that by purchasing any such reproductions, he or she is acquiring an original work of art.”[FN 42]

    If the museum industry has such high standards for full and honest disclosure of reproductions as reproductions,  what would they recommend for forgeries?

    A recent prime example of a published response could be found at the Art Institute of Chicago, when a forgery in their collection was outted not by the museum but by Scotland Yard.




























    THE FAUN, POSTHUMOUS FORGERY
    On December 12, 2007, in a "Art Institute's Statement on Gauguin's 'Faun'" Press Release, the Art Institute of Chicago, in part, stated: “The Faun, a sculpture acquired by the museum in 1997 as a work by Paul Gauguin, is a creative, well-researched forgery... produced by the recently sentenced Greenhalgh family from Bolton England.”[FN 43]

    The Faun ceramic, initially attributed to Paul Gauguin [d 1903] by Sotheby's auction house and purchased for $125,000 or more by the Art Institute of Chicago in 1997, was discovered by Scotland Yard in their 2007 investigation of another forgery to be non-disclosed posthumous [1990’s] forgery by convicted British forger Shaun Greenhalgh and the Greenhalgh family.[FN 44]


























    After being informed by Scotland Yard,  the Art Institute of Chicago posted on their website, a pdf press release, in part, stating: “The Art Institute of Chicago has recently concluded that The Faun, a sculpture acquired by the museum in 1997 as a work by Paul Gauguin, is a creative, well-researched forgery of a lost work by the artist produced by the recently sentenced Greenhalgh family from Bolton, England.”[FN 45]

    IT IS BOTH A GOOD SCULPTURE AND CRAFTY CONCEPT
    Yet, in a New York Times published December 13, 2007 “Work Believed a Gauguin Turns Out to Be a Forgery” article by Carol Vogel, the reporter quoted the Art Institute of Chicago’s director James Cuno stating: “It is both a good sculpture and crafty concept.”[FN 46]

    Since sculpture is an original work of visual art created by the -living- sculptor, it is very troubling for the Art Institute of Chicago director James Cuno to refer to a forgery as an original work of visual art ie., sculpture, particular since as an Association of Art Museum Directors member, this director endorses the College Art Association’s ethics on sculptural reproductions which in part states “any transfer into new material unless specifically condoned by the artist, is to be considered inauthentic or counterfeit and should not be display or exhibited as a work of art.”[FN 47]

    IT LOOKED LIKE GAUGUIN, IT LOOKED LIKE THINGS HE MADE
    In a Chicago WLS-TV ABC7 News broadcast December 12, 2007 story by Ravi Baichwal, posted on its’ website, it stated:  “Shortly after the Greenhalgh conviction in November, AIC president James Cuno was horrified to learn from Scotland Yard and Sotheby's that something in his galleries wasn't as valuable as the sculptures of Gauguin's contemporaries-- like [Dalou] and Rodin, nor the Gauguin's paintings. "There's nothing about its appearance, nothing about its manufacture that raised any doubts about the work. It looked like Gauguin, it looked like things he made," said James Cuno, Art Institute of Chicago.”[FN 48]     [Correction mine: Dulau to Dalou]

    For someone to judge the authenticity of an object because “it looked like Gauguin, it looked like things he made,” sounds more like an ignorant lay person than someone who calls themselves a museum director.

    WHAT IS CONNOISSEURSHIP?
    In Paul Duro and Michael Greenhalgh’s published Essential Art History, “connoisseurship” is defined as: “that of the art expert able to distinguish between the authentic and non-authentic, for example between an original and a copy.”[FN 49]

    WE DON’T USUALLY ASK FOR THAT
    In Chicago Tribune published December 21, 2006 “Taken it by a Complete Fake” article by Charles Storch and Alan G. Artner, the reporters quoted the former head of the Art Institute of Chicago’s department of European decorative arts, sculpture and ancient art Ian Wardropper stating: "It came with provenance completely believable, - Should we have checked with Scotland Yard whether the consignor was a descendant of O'Connor's? Maybe so, but we don't usually ask for that."[FN 50]

    MISSION
    Yet, the Art Institute of Chicago’s -Mission- would have the public believe and act on that belief that it: “collects, preserves, and interprets works of art of the highest quality, representing the world's diverse artistic traditions, for the inspiration and education of the public and in accordance with our profession's highest ethical standards and practices.”[FN 51]

    So,  if the Art Institute of Chicago,  on occasion,  has trouble determining, much less asking, whether something is an original or a reproduction, much less a forgery, what is the museum’s difficulty when the documentation makes it obvious?


    Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes, Spanish, 1746-1828, Rightly or wrongly, plate two from The Disasters of War, c. 1812/15, published 1863, Etching, lavis, burin, drypoint, and burnishing on ivory wove paper with gilt edges, 139 x 196 mm (image); 152 x 206 mm (plate); 240 x 337 mm (sheet), Gift of J. C. Cebrian, 1920.1307, Harris 122 III/III (1st edition); Delteil 121 IV/IV; Gassier and Wilson III.995; Pérez Sánchez & Gállego 2
    http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/124841?search_id=11 
    POSTHUMOUS FORGERY FROM A REWORKED AND ALTERED PLATE


    As a member of the Association of Art Museum Directors, the Art Institute of Chicago endorses the College Art Association ethical guidelines on sculptural reproduction which, in part, states: “any transfer into new material unless specifically condoned by the artist is to be considered inauthentic or counterfeit.”[FN 52] 

    Now, would the Art Institute of Chicago want to argue these ethical guidelines that apply to three-dimensional sculptural reproductions do not apply to two-dimensional posthumous forgeries from posthumously reworked and altered plates?

    So, does the Art Institute of Chicago, in practice like the University of San-Diego, have "a set of principles permitting greater opportunity or greater lenience for one class of people than for another"[FN 53] which is one legal definition of -double standard-?

    VICTORIA SANCHO LOBIS NEW CURATOR AT ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO
    Ironically, almost a year to the day the Union Tribune published on March 27, 2012, Goya Purist Takes on USD exhibit, 'The dead don't etch' he says" article by John Wilkens, the USD curator Victoria Sancho Lobis is about to become the new Prince Trust Associate Curator in the Department of Prints and Drawings at the Art Institute of Chicago, effective September 15, 2013. The Art Institute of Chicago's April 9, 2013 Press Release stated: "Lobis, a multilingual scholar, brings to the museum expertise in both Netherlandish Baroque and Latin American colonial art, adding new dimensions to an already strong department."[FN 54] 

    ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO'S FLOOD OF POSTHUMOUS FORGERIES
    Since, the Art Institute of Chicago is awash with a flood of non-disclosed posthumous forgeries falsely attributed to: Auguste Rodin, Edgar Degas, Jules Dalou, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Antione Louis Barye, Henri Chapu, Antonio Canova, Honore Daumier, Paul Gauguin, and not to mention dozens upon dozens non-disclosed posthumous forgeries falsely attributed to a dead Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, the new curator Victoria Sancho Lobis, who will "oversee the collections of Northern European prints and drawings of the 16th through 18th centuries," should feel right at home. 

    To learn more about the flood of posthumous forgeries in the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago, click on this link:  



    LAW, ETHICS AND THE VISUAL ARTS
    On page 816-817 of Kluwer Law International’s published 1998 Law, Ethics and the Visual Arts, Third Edition by John Henry Merryman and Albert E. Elsen wrote about “Counterfeit Art.”[FN 55] Under the subtitle -Truth-, the authors wrote: “The most serious harm that good counterfeits do is to confuse and misdirect the search for valid learning. The counterfeit objects falsifies history and misdirects inquiry.”[FN 56]

    Additionally, under the subtitle -Resource Allocation-, the authors wrote: “Museum and art historical resources are always limited. What gets acquired, displayed, conserved and studied is the result of a continuous process of triage, in which some objects can be favoured only at the expenses of others. Counterfeit objects distort the process.”[FN 57]

    Finally, under the subtitle -Fraud-, the authors wrote: “There remains the most obvious harm of all: counterfeit cultural objects are instruments of fraud. Most are created in order to deceive and defraud, but even “innocent” counterfeits can, and often will, be so used. The same considerations of justice and social order that make deliberate fraud of others kinds criminal apply equally to fraud through the medium of counterfeit art...”[FN 58]

    CONCLUSION
    What needs to be accomplished is the full and honest disclosure to non-disclosed posthumous forgeries by all museums, auction houses, academia, galleries and art dealers. If the University of California, Santa Barbara and its' Art, Design & Architecture Museum, in their July 13, 2013 - September 22, 2013 Goya: Disasters of War exhibition, and not to forget the University of San Diego who is loaning these non-disclosed posthumous forgeries, will give full and honest disclosure to these eighty non-disclosed posthumous [1906] -forgeries- printed from posthumously [1863 or later] reworked and altered plates, falsely attributed as original works of visual art ie., etchings to a Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, it would allow consumers the potential to give informed consent on whether to attend an exhibition of non-disclosed posthumous forgeries, much less including but not limited to voluntarily supporting the museum who solicits them to become a paid member and/or make a gift.[FN 59]

    Failure to give full and honest disclosure to non-disclosed posthumous forgeries my bring potential serious consequences of law for those who chose to misrepresent those them for monetary consideration.

    The reputations and legacy of living and past artists, present and future consumers ie. the art-buying public deserve the re-establishment of the obvious; that the living presence and participation of the artist to once again be required, as it always should have been, to create the piece of art attributable to the artist if indeed it is attributed to them, much less purported to have been signed by them.

    To quote Francisco de Goya y Lucientes' title concerning the truth: "Si resucitará?" (Will she rise again)? 

    Caveat Emptor!






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    FOOTNOTES:
    1. Copyright © 1999, By West Group, ISBN 0-314-22864-0

    2. Ibid

    3. Ibid

    4. © 1965 by Print Council of America, Library of Congress, Catalog Card Number: 65-24325, Seventh Printing, March, 1971


    6.  Copyright © 1999, By West Group, ISBN 0-314-22864-0




    11. Copyright © 1999, By West Group, ISBN 0-314-22864-0


    13. Copyright © 1999, By West Group, ISBN 0-314-22864-0


    14. Ibid


    16. Ibid


    18.  Copyright  © 1967 by Dover  Publications,  Inc.,  ISBN: 0-486-21872-4)

    19. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-3000-5462-9

    20.  Ibid



    23. Copyright © 1967 by Dover Publications, Inc.


    25.http://harrisschrank.com/bien-te-se-esta-%e2%80%93-it-serves-you-right.htm




    29. p 22, Translation Copyright© 1989 by Emily Read



    32. Ibid

    33.W. W. Norton & Company (October 2001), ISBN-10: 039332088X, ISBN-13: 978-0393320886






    39. Ibid


    41. Published in 2001 by the Association of Art Museum Directors, 41 East 65th Street, New York 10021 ISBN 1-880974-02-9

    42. Ibid







    49. Publisher: Bloomsbury Pub Ltd (July 1995), ISBN-10: 0747515859, ISBN-13: 978-0747515852
    Publication Date: July 1995
    This guide to the history of Western art combines a comprehensive essay, outlining the development of the discipline and its major movements, with more than 300 detailed entries, organized alphabetically from Abstract Expressionism to Zeitgeist, on the movements, terminology, writers, bibliography and philosophy significant to the development of art history. Extensive bibliographical information and cross-references are included.

    50.http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2007-12-16/news/0712140412_1_george-greenhalgh-paul-gauguin-claude-emile-schuffenecker



    53. p 506, Seventh Edition of Black's Law Dictionary, Copyright © 1999, By West Group, ISBN 0-314-22864-0

    54. http://www.artic.edu/sites/default/files/press/Lobis%20PR%20FINAL.pdf
    FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
    April 9, 2013
    MEDIA CONTACTS: 

    Erin Hogan Carl Krause
    (312) 443-3664 (312) 443-3363
    ehogan@artic.edu ckrause@artic.edu

    THE ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO NAMES VICTORIA SANCHO LOBIS AS NEW 
    PRINCE TRUST ASSOCIATE CURATOR

    The Art Institute of Chicago is very pleased to announce the appointment of Victoria Sancho Lobis as the new Prince Trust Associate Curator in the Department of Prints and Drawings, effective September 15, 2013. Lobis, a multilingual scholar, brings to the museum expertise in both Netherlandish Baroque and Latin American colonial art, adding new 
    dimensions to an already strong department. 

    “We are thrilled to welcome Victoria to the Art Institute,” said Suzanne Folds McCullagh, the  Anne Vogt Fuller and Marion Titus Searle Chair and Curator of the Department of Prints and  Drawings. “Her knowledge and experience will help us shape our holdings, research, and  exhibitions in two pivotal areas for the museum. We are particularly excited by her interest in Latin American colonial art and by her success in building a program at the University of San  Diego. She has energy, imagination, and the ability to think organizationally, all of which will  make her a welcome addition to the Art Institute.”

    Since 2009, Lobis has served as the inaugural curator of the Print Collection and Fine Art Galleries at the University of San Diego. In this capacity, she established the university’s print study room and worked closely with donors to develop an impressive collection, and she continues to make the collection accessible through its integration into the university curriculum and creative exhibitions. She also supervises design, publication, and installation teams as well as registrars and interns. In addition to her role within the Fine Art Galleries, she is an affiliated ember of the art history faculty and teaches undergraduate courses. She has also developed strong relationships outside of the university by taking an active role as a liaison for the art museums in southern California and beyond.

    Lobis received her B.A. from Yale University, M.A. from the Williams College Graduate Program in the History of Art, and her M.Phil. and Ph.D. from Columbia University, with a dissertation treating the subject of artistic training and print culture in the time of Rubens. Prior to her appointment at the University of San Diego, she was an Exhibition Coordinator at the Americas Society and an intern at the J. Paul Getty Museum in the Drawings Department. A recipient of many prestigious fellowships, including an Andrew W. Mellon Fellowship in Humanistic Studies, she has also taught at Columbia University, Claremont McKenna College, and New York University, and is the author of several publications on topics ranging from contemporary artists  John Baldessari and Dawoud Bey to Rubens and male anatomy in northern Europe. Lobis has also lectured at the Museum of Modern Art, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the Cleveland Museum of Art, and the Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art. Currently she is cocurating an exhibition on the sixteenth-century printmaker Hendrick Goltzius, which will be seen this fall at the Crocker Art Museum in Sacramento, California, and the following year at the University of San Diego.

    At the Art Institute, Lobis will oversee the collections of Northern European prints and drawings of the 16th through 18th centuries and bring her wide-ranging interests and experience to bear on other areas of the collection, including American 19th-century holdings. She will also take over the leadership of the museum’s Print and Drawing Club when she takes up full-time residence at the museum in September. 

    The Prince Charitable Trusts were established in 1947 from the bequests of Frederick Henry Prince (1859–1953) and his wife, Abbie Norman Prince (1860–1949). The three trusts operate as a family foundation with giving programs in the city of Chicago, the Washington D.C. metropolitan area, and the state of Rhode Island. F.H. Prince was a Boston entrepreneur who owned a brokerage and investment banking firm. He later became a financier and an early investor in railroads. He was owner of the legendary Union Stockyards in Chicago and is credited with developing the first planned urban industrial real estate park in that city and in the world. F. H. Prince and his wife also were residents of Newport, Rhode Island.


    55. © Kluwer Law International 1998, ISBN 90-411-0697-9

    56. Ibid

    57. Ibid



    58. Ibid

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    ADDENDUM
    For reference, the University of California Santa Barbara's Art, Design & Architecture Museum Goya: Disasters of War exhibition checklist, with the numerical designation: PC1999.1.1 to PC1999.1.82, in comparison to the National Gallery of Canada's Disasters of War collection checklist.

    Both collections are consists of non-disclosed forgeries, from  posthumously reworked and altered plates, falsely attributed as original works of visual art ie., etchings to dead Francisco de Goya y Lucientes. With some 80,000 or more non-disclosed forgeries from reworked and altered plates, falsely attributed as Disasters of War etchings and attributed to a dead Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, there are some 1,000 so-called editions of 80 that have been acquired, in part or whole by museums, cultural institutions and collectors around the world.

    It's a seemingly growing -cottage industry-.



    The plate numbers used, for the NGC collection, were acquired from: http://web.grinnell.edu/faulconergallery/goya/plates/platesA.htm 


    PC1999.1.1
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Sad presentiments of what must come to pass, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx


    Plate 1
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Sad Forebodings of What Is Going to Happen c. 1820-1823
    etching, burin, drypoint, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.5 x 21.9 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4124)

    This frontispiece to "The Disasters of War" was added between 1820 and 1823 with a group of caprichos "enfáticos", or "emphatic caprichos", which have imaginary and allegorical subject matter.

    Goya¿s distinctive, sombre later style is evident in the darker tones and looser handling of line. The identity of the figure remains a mystery. His kneeling position and open arms recall the pose of some martyred saint. In the absence of a written preface, this print effectively achieves a mood of foreboding, fear and anxiety for the scenes of violent conflict and famine that follow.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9655




    PC1999.1.2
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    With or without reason, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 2

    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    With or without Reason c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.9 cm; plate: 15.3 x 20.6 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4125)
    This print and the next ("The Same Thing", plate 3) record the improvised fighting methods of the Spanish resistance. Armed only with sharpened poles and knives, a group of insurgents bravely face the muskets of the French invaders. Their plain clothing and crude weapons identify them as working class people who have spontaneously risen up in rebellion and are not part of any organized army. Goya¿s title suggests the wild determination with which they continue to fight against a more advanced enemy.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9654



    PC1999.1.3
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    The same thing, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 3

    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    The Same Thing c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 16 x 22 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4126)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9653



    PC1999.1.4
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    The women give courage, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 4

    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    The Women Give Courage c. 1810-1813
    etching, aquatint, lavis, drypoint, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.6 x 33.5 cm; plate: 15.3 x 20.5 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4127)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9652



    PC1999.1.5
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    And are like wild beasts, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 5

    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    And They Are Like Wild Beasts c. 1810-1813
    etching, aquatint, drypoint, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.5 x 20.8 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4128)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9651

    In October 1808 the Spanish General Palafox invited Goya to Saragossa

    to record the glorious deeds of the local citizenry who had successfully
    defended the city against a French siege from June until August 1808
    during the opening months of the Peninsular War. Saragossa, the
    capital of the historical region of Aragon, is located on the border of
    France, west of the Pyrenees and was vulnerable to Napoleon¿s troops.
    Among reports that Goya heard on his arrival were those of the
    heroism of women who defended themselves ferociously with knives,
    rocks or whatever was at hand. In this print one woman holding an
    infant with her left arm drives a spear through her attacker with her
    right.



    PC1999.1.6
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    It serves you rignt, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism


    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 6

    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    It Serves You Right c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, and burin on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 14.1 x 20.8 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4129)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9650



    PC1999.1.7
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    What courage, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 7

    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    What Courage! c. 1810-1813
    etching, aquatint, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.5 x 21 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4130)

    A popular heroine of the battle of Saragossa was Agustina de Aragón,

    who ran supplies for the front line soldiers and is said to have rushed
    forward over her fallen male comrades, plucked the lit match from the
    hand of a wounded artilleryman and fired the cannon in his place. Her
    example rallied the defenders to carry on the struggle. Goya here
    transforms the figure of Agustina into a symbol of decisive bravery.
    Saragossa was finally taken by the French in February 1809 after 42
    days of continuous attack.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9649



    PC1999.1.8
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    This always happens, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 8

    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    This Always Happens c. 1820-1823
    etching and drypoint on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.4 x 21.8 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4131)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9648



    PC1999.1.9
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    They do not want to, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 9

    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    They Don't Want To c. 1810-1813
    etching, aquatint, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.3 x 20.8 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4132)

    During the Peninsular War, the Spanish civilian population suffered

    unspeakable atrocities at the hands of the invaders. This print depicts the bravery of an old woman who fights against such acts despite her
    physical disadvantage. A muted atmosphere of seclusion is created by a
    layer of aquatint covering the whole plate with the exception of parts of
    the figures and the water wheel.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9647



    PC1999.1.10
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Nor do these, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 10

    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Nor Do These Either c. 1810-1813
    etching and burin on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.7 cm; plate: 14.8 x 21.6 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4133)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9646



    PC1999.1.11
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Or these, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 11

    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Neither Do These c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, drypoint, and burin on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 16.1 x 21.1 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4134)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9645



    PC1999.1.12
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    This is what you were born for, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 12

    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    This Is What You Were Born For c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, drypoint, and burin on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.8 x 23.4 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4135)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9644



    PC1999.1.13
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Bitter Presence, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68" x 13.18" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 13

    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Bitter to Be Present c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 14.1 x 17 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4136)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9643



    PC1999.1.14
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    The way is hard, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn

    Plate 14

    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    It's a Hard Step! c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 14.1 x 16.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4137)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9642



    PC1999.1.15
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    And it can't be helped, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68" x 13.18" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 15

    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    And There Is No Help for It c. 1810-1813
    etching, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 14 x 16.8 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4138)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9641




    PC1999.1.16
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    They avail themselves, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.62" x 13.25 Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 16

    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    They Avail Themselves c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.9 x 23.5 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4139)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9640




    PC1999.1.17
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    They do not agree, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 17
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    They Do Not Agree c. 1810-1813
    etching, drypoint, lavis, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.6 x 33.8 cm; plate: 14.3 x 21.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4140)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9639



    PC1999.1.18
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Bury them and keep quiet, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 18
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Bury Them and Keep Quiet c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 16.1 x 23.5 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4141)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9638

    Bodies of fallen soldiers lie stripped of their clothing and ready for a quick and anonymous burial. As textiles were in short supply during wartime, the clothing of the dead became a valuable commodity. The task of this cowering couple is to inter the corpses to avoid the spread of disease. Cloud formations in the sky were created by the lavis technique of applying acid directly to the plate.



    PC1999.1.19
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    There is not more time, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68" x 13.18" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 19
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    There Isn't Time Now c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 16.5 x 23.9 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4142)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9637



    PC1999.1.20
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Treat them then on to other matters, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 20
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Get Them Well, and On to the Next 1810
    etching, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 16 x 23.5 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4143)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9636



    PC1999.1.21
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    It will be the same, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68" x 13.18" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 21
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    It Will Be the Same c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 14.6 x 21.8 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4144)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9635



    PC1999.1.22
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    All this and more, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 22
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Even Worse 1810
    etching, lavis, and burin on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.9 x 25 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4145)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9634



    PC1999.1.23
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    The same elsewhere, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 23
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    The Same Elsewhere c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, drypoint, and burin on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.9 x 24 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4146)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9633



    PC1999.1.24
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    They'll still be useful, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.62" x 13.25 Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 24
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    They Can Still Be of Use c. 1810-1813
    etching and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 16 x 25.5 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4147)

    Here the Spanish militia collects their wounded from a battle field before the silhouette of buildings in the background, possibly those of the medieval town of Saragossa. The title may refer to the fact that after they were treated the wounded were still needed to continue the fight against Napoleon¿s army.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9632



    PC1999.1.25
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    So will these, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 25
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    These Too c. 1810-1813
    etching, drypoint, and burin on wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 16.3 x 23.3 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4148)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9631



    PC1999.1.26
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    One cannot look at this, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 26
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    One Can't Look c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 14.3 x 20.8 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4149)

    The title of this print suggests the terror of being an eye witness to atrocity, in this case the execution of Spanish civilians, including women and children. The savage realism with which Goya records events was calculated to maximize the moral outrage at what takes place.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9630



    PC1999.1.27
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Charity, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 16 x 23.3 cm Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 27
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Charity 1810
    etching, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.8 x 23.5 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4150)

    This is one of three prints in "The Disasters of War" that is signed and dated ¿Goya 1810,¿ indicating it was among the first in the series. Preparatory drawings for the plates survive and the one for this print in the Prado Museum bears a plate mark, signifying that it was run through a press, transferring the image to the ground of acid-resistant resin, which the artist was then able to follow with his etching needle. The subject refers to reports of thousands of bodies piled in the streets of Saragossa by the end of the intense French assault in February 1809.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9629



    PC1999.1.28
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Rabble, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 28
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Rabble c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.4 x 21.5 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4151)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9628




    PC1999.1.29
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    He deserved it, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 29 -
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    He Deserved It c. 1820-1823
    etching, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.5 x 21.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4152)

    Atrocities were committed during the Peninsular War by both the French and Spanish. In many Spanish cities, prominent citizens suspected of collaborating with the enemy were tortured and mutilated by frenzied mobs. With its looser handling of line, spare detailing of the figures, but expressive study of character, this print is given a later date coincident with the "Caprichos enfáticos" series added by Goya in 1820-23.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9627 



    PC1999.1.30
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Ravages of War, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 30
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Ravages of War c. 1810-1813
    etching, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 14.1 x 16.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4153)

    The second siege of Saragossa (20 December 1808 ¿ 20 February 1809) wiped out entire families in their homes. The spatial disorientation created by close cropping of the image and the chaotic position of the bodies suggest this print depicts a moment just after the cannon fire has struck. In 1924 the German printmaker Otto Dix published a portfolio of aquatints on the First World War, titled "Der Krieg", with scenes of equally tragic pandemonium.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9626



    PC1999.1.31
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    This is too much, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68" x 13.18" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 31
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    That's Tough! c. 1810-1813
    etching, aquatint, drypoint, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.4 x 20.6 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4154)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9625





    PC1999.1.32
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Why, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism


    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 32
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Why? c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.2 x 20.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4155)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9624



    PC1999.1.33
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    What more can one do?, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 33
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    What More Can Be Done? c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.6 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.4 x 20.6 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4156)

    In this print Goya shows Napoleon¿s troops to have had an avid taste for violence in carrying out retaliation on the resistance fighters. Such mutilations were strategically intended to strike mortal fear into the hearts of the local populace and to discourage further uprisings.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9623



    PC1999.1.34
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    On account of a knife, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.62" x 13.25” Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 34
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    On Account of a Knife c. 1810-1813
    etching, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.5 x 20.5 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4157)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9622



    PC1999.1.35
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Nobody knows why, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 35
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    One Can't Tell Why c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.5 x 20.5 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4158)

    During the French occupation of Spain, legal executions were often abused as a way to discourage violent resistance. The weapons slung around the necks of these garrotted men relate to a decree of December 1808 making it a capital offence in Madrid to attack a member of the French army, bear a weapon in the street, or conceal one in the home. Garrotting was the favoured method of public execution in Spain and the condemned often requested it over hanging.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9621



    PC1999.1.36
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Not, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 36
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Not in this Case Either c. 1810-1813
    etching, aquatint, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.5 x 20.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4159)

    As the French suppressed Spanish resistance during the Peninsular War, they were swift to administer harsh justice to their prisoners. Some were shot outright (see "And There Is No Help for It", plate 15), others were hanged en masse on improvised gallows made of tree trunks and then left to rot as an example to others. The French generals ordered executions as a way to gain strategic war advantage. The officer who observes the tragic scene in this print appears to share his commander¿s indifference to death.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9620



    PC1999.1.37
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    This is worse, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.62" x 13.25” Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 37
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    This Is Worse c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, and drypoint on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.5 x 20.5 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4160)

    This is one of the few subjects to be identified by Goya. He inscribed on a working proof of this print the words ¿El de Chinchón (The one at Chinchon)¿ in reference to the massacre of the male inhabitants of the town in December 1808. It is unlikely that Goya witnessed this scene himself, but relied on second-hand accounts and reports of the atrocity.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9619



    PC1999.1.38
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Barbarians, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.62" x 13.25” Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 38
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Barbarians! c. 1810-1813
    etching, aquatint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.2 x 20.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4161)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9618



    PC1999.1.39
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Great deeds-against the dead, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.62" x 13.25” Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 39
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    An Heroic Feat! With Dead Men! c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, and drypoint on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.4 x 20.5 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4162)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9617 



    PC1999.1.40
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    There is something to be gained, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 40
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    He Gets Something Out of It c. 1810-1813
    etching, drypoint, and burin on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.5 x 22 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4163)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9616



    PC1999.1.41
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    They escape through the flames, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 41
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    They Escape through the Flames c. 1810-1813
    etching and burin on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 16.1 x 23.4 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4164)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9615



    PC1999.1.42
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Everything is topsy turvy, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 42
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Everything Is Topsy-turvy c. 1820-1823
    etching and burin on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.6 x 22 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4165)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9614



    PC1999.1.43
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    So is this, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68" x 13.18" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 43
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    This Too c. 1810-1813
    etching, aquatint, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.5 x 20.6 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4166)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9613



    PC1999.1.44
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    I saw it, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 44
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    I Saw It c. 1810-1813
    etching, drypoint, and burin on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.8 x 23.5 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4167)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9612



    PC1999.1.45
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    And this too, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.62" x 13.25” Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 45
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    And This Too c. 1810-1813
    etching, aquatint, drypoint, and burin on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 16.5 x 22 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4168)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9611



    PC1999.1.46
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    This is bad, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 46
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    This Is Bad c. 1810-1813
    etching, aquatint, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.3 x 20.5 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4169)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9610




    PC1999.1.47
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    This is how it happened, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 47
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    This Is How It Happened c. 1810-1813
    etching, aquatint, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.5 x 20.6 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4170)

    French soldiers looted the church silver of those communities that put up resistance during the Peninsular War as way to further punish the local inhabitants. Pillaging of Spanish culture was also carried out on a larger, more organized scale. Between 1808 and 1813, the French assembled more than 1,200 paintings in Seville from suppressed religious orders, a number of which entered the private collections of their generals.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9609



    PC1999.1.48
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    A cruel shame, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75" x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 48
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Cruel Tale of Woe! c. 1811-1812
    etching, lavis, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.4 x 20.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4171)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9608



    PC1999.1.49
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    A woman's charity, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68” x 13.18" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 49
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    A Woman's Charity c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.5 x 20.6 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4172)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9607



    PC1999.1.50
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Unhappy Mother, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68” x 13.18" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 50 -
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Unhappy Mother! c. 1811-1812
    etching, aquating, drypoint, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.3 x 20.6 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4173)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9606



    PC1999.1.51
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Thanks to the millet, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 51
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Thanks to the Millet c. 1811-1812
    etching, aquatint, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.5 x 20.5 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4174)

    A number of "The Disasters of War" series take as their subject the severe famine that struck Spain between September 1811 and August 1812 (plates 48-64) and devastated Madrid. Millet porridge was one of the few nutrients available to the local population. With his masterful application of atmospheric aquatint and etched line for the figures and background, Goya creates a most haunting image of human deprivation and despair. Famine devastated Madrid.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9605



    PC1999.1.52
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    They do not arrive in time, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 52
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    They Do Not Arrive in Time c. 1811-1812
    etching, lavis, drypoint, and burin on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.3 x 20.5 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4175)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9604



    PC1999.1.53
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    There was nothing to be done and he died, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68” x 13.18" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 53
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    There Was Nothing to Be Done and He Died c. 1810-1813
    etching, aquatint, lavis, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.5 x 20.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4176)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9603



    PC1999.1.54
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Vain Laments, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 54
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Appeals Are in Vain c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.3 x 20.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4177)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9602



    PC1999.1.55
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    The worst is to beg, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.62” x 13.25 Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 55
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    The Worst Is to Beg c. 1811-1812
    etching, lavis, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.6 x 20.6 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4178)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9601



    PC1999.1.56
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    To the cemetary, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.62” x 13.25 Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 56
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    To the Cemetery c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, and drypoint on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.3 x 20.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4179)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9600



    PC1999.1.57
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    The sound and the sick, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.87” x 13.37" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 57
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    The Healthy and the Sick c. 1810-1813
    etching, aquatint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.6 x 20.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4180)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9599



    PC1999.1.58
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    It is no use shouting, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.62” x 13.25 Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 58
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    It's No Use Crying Out c. 1810-1813
    etching, aquatint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.5 x 20.8 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4181)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9598



    PC1999.1.59
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    What good is a single cup, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 59
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    What Is the Use of a Cup? c. 1810-1813
    etching, aquatint, lavis, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.3 x 20.6 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4182)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9597 



    PC1999.1.60
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    There is no one to help them, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism


    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 60
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    There Is No One to Help Them c. 1811-1813
    etching, aquatint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15 x 20.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4183)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9596



    PC1999.1.61
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Perhaps they are of another breed, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.62” x 13.25 Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 61
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Perhaps They Are of Another Breed c. 1810-1813
    etching, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.1 x 20.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4184)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9595



    PC1999.1.62
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    The Deathbeds, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68” x 13.18" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 62
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    The Beds of Death c. 1811-1812
    etching, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.5 x 21.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4185)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9594



    PC1999.1.63
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    A collection of dead men, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 63
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Harvest of the Dead c. 1811-1812
    etching, aquatint, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.3 x 20.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4186)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9593



    PC1999.1.64
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Cartloads for the cemetary, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 64
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Cartloads to the Cemetery c. 1811-1812
    etching, aquatint, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.4 x 20.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4187)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9592




    PC1999.1.65
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    What is this hubbub?, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 65
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    What Is this Hubbub? c. 1820-1823
    etching, aquatint (or lavis ?), burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.3 x 21.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4188)

    This print begins the "caprichos enfáticos" series that Goya added in 1820-23. Here he focuses on the trials of defeat and occupation. Two anguished women flee from a French officer after hearing devastating news, either about loved ones who have perished or the loss of possessions requisitioned for the war effort.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9591



    PC1999.1.66
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Strange Devotion, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.62” x 13.25 Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 66
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Strange Devotion! c. 1820-1823
    etching, aquatint (or lavis ?), and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.3 x 22 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4189)

    In this print from the late group of "caprichos enfáticos", Goya returns to the anti-clerical themes of "Los Caprichos". Here he depicts the veneration of a preserved corpse in the tradition of the saintly reliquary. Is this a local religious figure? The answer is not clear, however it seems in this print and the one that follows in the series ("This Is Not Less So", plate 67), Goya is directing criticism at superstition and the belief in false miracles.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9590



    PC1999.1.67
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    This is no less curious, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68” x 13.18" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 67
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    This Is Not Less So c. 1820-1823
    etching, aquatint, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.3 x 21.6 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4190)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9589



    PC1999.1.68
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    What madness!, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68” x 13.25" Romanticism


    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 68
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    What Madness! c. 1820-1823
    etching, lavis, and burin on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 16 x 22.1 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4191)

    Goya's low opinion of the clergy is abundantly clear in this view of a monk relieving himself among masks, costumes, placards and dolls, possibly used in religious theatre or festival processions. The hooded monks passing by in the background suggest that the setting is a monastery where the clergy have hypocritically concealed their chamber pots among the stage props with which they enchant the faithful.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9588



    PC1999.1.69
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Nothing. We shall see., 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 69
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Nothing. The Event Will Tell c. 1820-1823
    etching, aquatint, lavis, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 15.4 x 20.1 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4192)

    Goya¿s stark image of a corpse having inscribed "Nada" (¿nothing¿) on a sheet of paper is a sobering epilogue for a series of prints on the theme of devastation and loss suffered over the course of the Peninsular War. In the left section of an early proof of this print, the artist depicted an allegorical figure of Justice with her scales, all but obliterated in the published edition of 1863. The print seems to address Goya¿s disappointment with how little was achieved by way of reform during this violent period of upheaval.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9587



    PC1999.1.70
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    They don't know the way, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 70
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    They Do Not Know the Way c. 1820-1823
    etching, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.7 x 21.8 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4193)

    This print depicts a variation on the traditional morality tale of ¿the blind leading the blind.¿ A cross-section of Spanish society is strung together with rope. While they are not necessarily blind, they are leaderless and left to wander aimlessly because they have not embraced the liberal values cherished by the artist. The return of Ferdinand VII in 1814 following the end of the Peninsular War ushered in a period of political and religious repression and reinstated the Inquisition, which summoned Goya in 1815 to answer obscenity charges relating to his painting of the "Naked Maja", 1800 (Museo del Prado, Madrid).
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9586



    PC1999.1.71
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Against the common good, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 71
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Against the Common Good c. 1820-1823
    etching and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.5 x 21.8 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4194)

    The long batwing ears and clawed hands and feet of this sanctimonious creature recall the warlocks of "Los Caprichos". His monk¿s robes identify him as a member of the clergy. That he records a repressive rule of law is suggested by the crowd who prostrate themselves in the lower right. This politically motivated print may relate to the Constitutional crisis of 1820 when Ferdinand VII was forced to swear allegiance to the more liberal Constitution of 1812, only to overthrow it three years later and re-establish himself as an absolute monarch with the sanction of European members of the Holy Alliance signed after the final defeat of Napoleon.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9585




    PC1999.1.72
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    The consequences, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 72
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    The Consequences c. 1820-1823
    etching on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.4 x 21.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4195)

    The fantastic night creatures in this scene recall "The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters" from the "Los Caprichos" series, but here convey the tragedy of conflict. Descending upon the fallen, they can be interpreted to represent the plundering of the Nation, the futility of sacrifice, and Nature¿s brute indifference before the failed ideals of humanity.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9584



    PC1999.1.73
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Feline Pantomime, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68” x 13.18" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 73
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Feline Pantomime c. 1820-1823
    etching, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.6 x 21.8 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4196)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9583





    PC1999.1.74
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    This is the worst, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 74
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    That Is the Worst of It! c. 1820-1823
    etching and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.7 x 21.8 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4197)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9582



    PC1999.1.75
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Troupe of charlatans, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68” x 13.18" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 75
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Charlatans' Show c. 1820-1823
    etching, aquatint (or lavis ?), drypoint, and burin on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.3 x 22.2 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4198)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9581 



    PC1999.1.76
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    The carnivorous vulture, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68” x 13.18" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 76
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    The Carnivorous Vulture c. 1820-1823
    etching, drypoint ?, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.2 x 21.9 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4199)
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9579



    PC1999.1.77
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Look the rope is breaking!, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 77
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    May the Cord Break c. 1820-1823
    etching, aquatint (or lavis ?), drypoint, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.6 x 21.8 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4200)

    One of Goya¿s most overtly anti-clerical images from "The Disasters of War" series, this print shows a grim faced prelate - actually Pope Pius VII minus his papal tiara - navigating a stretched and frayed tightrope suspended above a crowd of hecklers. No-one is fooled by the clergy¿s new-found powers after Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne in 1814; inevitably liberal reform will prevail.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9578



    PC1999.1.78
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    He defends himself well, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68” x 13.25" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 78
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    He Defends Himself Well c. 1820-1823
    etching, drypoint, burin, and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.3 x 21.7 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4201)

    One of the few prints by Goya devoted exclusively to animals, those depicted here are in fact personifications of human folly. A pack of wolves viciously attack a horse, while collared dogs look on with calm indifference. It is a sad commentary on those who turn a blind eye to injustice.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9577



    PC1999.1.79
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Truth has died, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68” x 13.12" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 79
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Truth Has Died c. 1820-1823
    etching and burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.5 x 21.9 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4202)

    The "Disasters of War" series ends with two prints created as Goya¿s last desperate plea for the survival of liberal values in Spain represented by the Constitution of 1812, which was revoked by Ferdinand VII when he returned to power in 1814 and again in 1823. The Constitution is here personified by a bare-breasted woman in a white dress, laid to rest by a bishop and his clerical followers. However, the light of Truth continues to radiate from her inert body.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9576



    PC1999.1.80
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Will she live again, 1863 etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.68” x 13.18" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

    Plate 80
    Francisco Goya y Lucientes
    Will She Rise Again? c. 1820-1823
    etching with burnishing on heavy wove paper
    Printed by Laurenciano Potenciano
    24.5 x 33.8 cm; plate: 17.4 x 21.9 cm
    Purchased 1933
    National Gallery of Canada (no. 4203)

    This plate, the final print in the series, suggests the spiritual resurrection of a buried ideal, a development that finds mixed reaction among many of the bystanders. One figure with clasped hands who kneels behind her head seems to welcome the event, while others, including cloaked figures brandishing clubs and an animal-faced creature about to hurl down a book (undoubtedly, the existing laws of repression under the Inquisition), remain hostile.
    http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/artwork_e.jsp?mkey=9575




    PC1999.1.81
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Title Page, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.25" Romanticism


    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx


    PC1999.1.82
    Goya, Francisco (de y Lucientes)
    Preface to page, 1863
    etching with lavis, drypoint burning, 9.75” x 13.12" Romanticism
    Gift of Robert and Karen Hoehn
    usdgoya.docx

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